The “Big Five”: A Model Term Paper

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The “Big Five”: A Model Term Paper


The “Big Five” are Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, Neuroticism, and Extraversion, which together formulates the five-element paradigm of Personality (FFM) (sometimes named Intellect). Rather than being retiring and quiet, those who are incredibly extroverted are aggressive and outgoing. Instead of being impolite and hostile, agreeable individuals are collaborative and kind. Instead of being unorganized and easily distracted, conscientious individuals are well planned and task-focused. Instead of depicting emotionally resilient behavior, neurotic people are more likely to get unpleasant emotions like irritability, worry and despair. Lastly, more open people value novelty over program, have a wide spectrum of interests instead of a narrow one, and are sensitive and insensitive to aesthetics and artwork.

The Big Five/FFM was stablished to utilize a minimal number of trait dimensions to express a large portion of the variation in peoples’ personalities as possible. Numerous personality psychologists concur that the Big Five/FFM model may be used to conceive many different trait frameworks and that its five domains represent the most important, fundamental, and essential distinct personality qualities (Sleep, Lynam, & Miller, 2021). Without undertaking a personality attributes exam, one can gather information about their Personality by comprehending each attribute and knowing what it implies to score well or badly in that character. Depending on where they are on the spectrum for every one of the personality attributes mentioned, it may also assist one in comprehending other people properly.



Background of the “Big Five” Personality Model

Long-standing attributes ideologies of Personality have investigated to decide the exact number of attributes that prevail. Earlier theories have proposed various figures. For example, Raymond Cattell depicted 16 personality elements, Gordon Allport gave 4,000 personality qualities, while Hans Eysenck proposed a three-factor concept. Several studies accepted that Cattell’s concept was very complicated and Eysenck’s was very limited (John, 2021). To characterize the wide characteristics that form the basis of Personality, the Big 5 personality traits were established.

There are five essential personality attributes, as per a range of studies. Following research in 1949 by D. W. Fiske, that was afterwards detailed on by researchers like, Smith (1967), 1981 by Goldberg, Norman (1967) and McCrae & Costa, there has led to rising proof supporting this concept in psychology (1987). It is essential to recall that every one of the five fundamental personality attributes is placed between two poles. Extraversion, is a range that stretches from extreme extraversion to excessive introversion. Numerous individuals in the actual globe find themselves at the center. Nevertheless, a wide range of literature well supports these core personality qualities, scientists need to be more in agreement on the exact names for each aspect. Although, these five attributes are commonly discussed as below.


Openness lays the full focus on imagination and intuition among the five personality attributes. It is also referred to as openness to experience. People with strong receptivity tendencies usually possess a broad range of desirables. They see everyone and their circumstances fascinating, which motivates them to discover new skills and experience wonderful adventures. People who score highly on this personality trait usually exhibit greater spontaneity and creativity. People that score poorly on this personality attribute, on the other hand, appear to be much more traditional and may have trouble thinking abstractly.


Conscientiousness is identified with by a high degree of reasoning, effective behavioral inhibition, and objective-oriented behaviors. Highly conscientious individuals are often well-coordinated and careful with details. They are well planned, aware of others’ emotions, and deadline-conscious. An individual owning a lower personality attribute score is less ordered and planned. They might discourage them to complete assignments, maybe missing timeframes.


Extraversion is a psychological attribute defined by elevated chattiness, hyperactivity, emotional articulateness, and friendliness. It is also called extroversion. Extraverted people are outgoing and enthusiastic in social surroundings. These individuals are invigorated and excited when other people surround them. Those who have a low score on this personality attribute or those who are more reserved tend to be introverts. They are less capable of exerting themselves in social gatherings, and social conditions can be tiring. Introverts often require some space alone and silence to “charge up.”


People with increased extents of agreeableness have a higher probability to be collaborative. Contrastingly, those with low extends of this personality trait are more probably aggressive and, sometimes, deceitful. Empathy, friendliness, trustworthiness, benevolence and other socio-emotional traits are included in this personality feature.



Irritability, sadness and erratic behavior are traits of neuroticism, a personality attributes. High neurotic individuals often exhibit worry, mood swings, melancholy and impatience. Individuals who score less on this personality type are likely to be increasingly emotionally secure and persistent.

Use of the Big Five Personality Traits

According to studies, these variables are interrelated and have many connections with other facets of a person’s life. The Big Five are so broad that they cover many characteristics and similar group attributes into a unified component.

Openness to Experience

A person’s chances of getting a managerial position have been noted to rise with openness to experience, probably as a result of the capacity to engage in novel ideas and reason creatively. The values of universalism, like promoting peace and tolerance and viewing everyone as deserving of fairness and equality, are correspondingly linked to openness. Moreover, openness has been related in research to expertise and a broad range of intellectual knowledge and abilities, and it could get better over time. This suggests that openness to experience improves one’s abilities and skills and that this receptivity naturally grows as one gets older and accumulates more experiences to draw from.

Openness to experience is mainly unconnected to conscientiousness and agreeableness. It has a weak relationship with neuroticism and extroversion and is linked to neither of the other Big Five variables (Tan et al., 2019). The quality least expected to alter over time and likely to spur growth in a person is their openness to new experiences. The benefit of having a high receptivity to experience must be utilized to investigate oneself, the world, and one son’s hobbies. These people create capable and innovative leaders and are most likely to invent the next big idea.


Anxiety, smoking, drug dependence, and participation in psychiatric treatment are all negatively connected with conscientiousness. The measure also showed a slight negative correlation with neuroticism and a slight positive correlation with agreeableness, but there was no clear correlation with the other characteristics (Javaras, Williams, & Baskin-Sommers, 2019). These findings demonstrate that high conscientiousness is a tremendous advantage over low conscientiousness. High conscientious people must make an effort to make the most of their skills, which include preparation, tenacity, coordination, and a propensity for high accomplishment.

This component has been associated with success, adherence, and a desire for security. It has also been adversely associated with prioritizing excitement and pleasure. High conscientiousness individuals are also more inclined to value order, obligation, accomplishment, and self-discipline. They also actively engage in deliberate practice and strive for enhanced skills. Given these relationships, it is not unexpected that conscientiousness is closely linked to intrinsic and extrinsic professional success and outstanding job productivity after coaching. The extremely conscientious are likely to accomplish several classic success indicators as they do not succumb to excessive perfectionism.


People who value accomplishment and excitement are more likely to appreciate them than those who value heritage or compliance. Extroverts frequently avoid self-denial in place of excitement and enjoyment and are forceful, energetic, and gregarious. These results suggest that high extroversion is a good predictor of management and helps all job levels perform well in training. It also helps managers and salespeople succeed. High extroversion positively correlates with a large salary, conservative political views, early-life problem-solving abilities, and social interactions.

Extroversion is a superb indicator of proper operation and fundamental well-being, positive feelings, and overconfidence in task performance because of its ease of assessment and general long-term stability. Extroversion had a marginally positive relationship with openness to new things and a slightly antagonistic relationship with neuroticism compared to the other Big Five characteristics. Extroverted individuals are probably to be friendly and like social interaction, but they may wish to pay extra attention to making well-considered judgments and taking other people’s requirements and sensitivities into account.


A common trait of agreeable people is their preference for charity, tradition, and compliance over things like power, success, or the satisfaction of personal desires. Being agreeable may be driven by a desire to uphold cultural standards or social obligations, or it could result from genuine care for the well-being of others. Whatever the purpose, it seldom includes brutality, callousness, or self-interest. High agreeableness individuals are also more likely to have healthy peer and family interactions, demonstrate appreciation and tolerance, land dream careers, enjoy fulfilling relationships, live long lives, and serve in their societies. Since it impacts virtually every area where relationships with people are significant, agreeableness significantly impacts a variety of life outcomes. High agreeableness has a long-term relationship with substantial social assistance and a successful adjustment to middle age, although it has a modest inverse relationship with creativity.

Friendly and likable people may not desire to reach a standard definition of accomplishment but prioritize their relationships with loved ones. Weakly connected with extroversion, agreeableness has a little inverse relationship with neuroticism and a slight inverse relationship with conscientiousness. High agreeableness people are likely to have numerous close acquaintances and strong relationships with their relatives. However, there is a small risk that they may frequently put everyone else before themselves and fail on possibilities for achievement, education, and advancement. Friendly and agreeable people can make the most of their assets by utilizing their social support systems for assistance and gathering requirements in constructive community involvement.


It has been discovered that neuroticism adversely correlates with the inner locus of control, self-consciousness in general, and self-esteem. These four characteristics are so strongly related to one another that they might all belong to the same construct. Additionally, neuroticism has been connected to decreased motivation, particularly motivation for main objective and self-efficacy, and poorer work performance. It should not be a wonder that unpredictability and susceptibility to anxiety and worry inhibit one’s capacity to do their finest work. Additionally, the neuroticism traits of self-esteem and anxiety are highly associated with more conventional values and adversely associated with accomplishment values. Hedonism has a positive relationship with the neuroticism traits of anger and restlessness, while compassion, heritage, and conformity have a negative relationship with them.

Numerous studies have shown that neuroticism is favorably connected with substance use, alcohol misuse, and mental health problems while inversely linked with quitting smoking and making better health adjustments. It was discovered that neuroticism had a weak, unfavorable link with extroversion and openness to experience in conjunction with a moderately negative correlation with conscientiousness and agreeableness. Essentially, having high neuroticism is linked to experiencing more challenges in life, such as addiction, subpar work performance, and unhealthful coping with change. Although having a high neuroticism score does not guarantee a terrible life, people who fall into this category might benefit from increasing their self-assurance, developing a support network, and resisting drugs with addictive tendencies.

Variables affecting Personality Traits

According to studies, genetic and surroundings elements lead to the enhancements of our personalities. Each of the five personality qualities results from both environment and upbringing. One study assessed 125 pairs of identical twins and 129 pairs of fraternal twins to assess the biological and ecological bases of the five personalities. The outcomes showed that every personality trait’s heredity was as below: extraversion was inheritable in 55%, agreeableness in 43%, conscientiousness in 46%, neuroticism in 43%, and openness in 63%. Long-term studies imply that these “big five” personality qualities are generally relatively stable throughout adulthood. Five-year research of young professionals indicated that adverse life events did not affect Personality. The five personality qualities may alter as individuals mature. People prefer to be less neurotic, extroverted Personality, and open to experiences as they age. Conscientiousness and agreeableness rise with age.

Critics of the “Big Five” Personality Model

The five personality assessments have many limits, despite their undoubted usefulness, which businesses need to be cognizant of to minimize overstating their prognostic significance or compromising initiatives to foster a multicultural and diverse workplace. These include the model’s (a) inability to consider fundamental Personality thriving further than the standard of attributes; (b) constraints concerning the estimation of a particular practice and the sufficient explanation of people’s lives; (c) inability to provide fascinating causal insights into human experiences and interactions; (d) neglect for the sociocultural and contingent reality of human nature; and (e) inability to give an engaging curriculum for examining personality organizations (Feher & Vernon, 2021). The five-factor model effectively provides knowledge about people that one would need to know if they knew nothing else about them, serving as a “psychology of the alien.” Due to their intrinsic limits, the Big Five represent one significant paradigm in personality research, but not the integrated character model.



The psychology of Personality is a complex area of research with a long background of dynamic ideas and hypotheses. Daily life makes it simple to think about Personality, but it can be challenging to perform reliable scientific studies on Personality. The Big Five can be used to understand better one’s Personality and where to direct their energy and attention. Discovering one’s abilities is the first approach to using them to their advantage. Scientists expect people can determine where they fit on the Big Five personality scopes regardless of whether they employ the Big Five Assessment.





Feher, A., & Vernon, P. A. (2021). Looking beyond the Big Five: A selective review of alternatives to the Big Five model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences169, 110002.

Javaras, K. N., Williams, M., & Baskin-Sommers, A. R. (2019). Psychological interventions potentially useful for increasing conscientiousness. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment10(1), 13.

John, O. P. (2021). History, measurement, and conceptual elaboration of the Big‑Five trait taxonomy: The paradigm matures.

Sleep, C. E., Lynam, D. R., & Miller, J. D. (2021). A comparison of the validity of very brief measures of the Big Five/Five-Factor Model of personality. Assessment28(3), 739-758.

Tan, C. S., Lau, X. S., Kung, Y. T., & Kailsan, R. A. L. (2019). Openness to experience enhances creativity: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation and the creative process engagement. The Journal of Creative Behavior53(1), 109-119.



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