1 Cognitive and Interactional Theories Conflict- Interfaith Conflict


Religious and faith-related affiliations have always led to societal conflicts, especially in the civil and communication dimensions. Depending on the dimensions and perspectives through Article Error (TS which religious relationships are seen or appreciated, interfaith encounters and conversations have the potential to both cause and solve a conflict in equal measure. How people can make Prep. ETS decisions, what kinds of concepts we already have, and how we feel and react all play significant roles in interpreting the world around us. Our views and the way we think play a key influence in the process by which we determine whether or not something is ethical or immoral. Our actions and motivation levels are very significant factors to consider when determining how difficult something is. Our religious beliefs and leanings influence how we think, which influences how we perceive the world around us. For instance, collegial students from religions that place a high value on self-interest and autonomy tend to concentrate only on the most significant aspects of a condition.

In contrast, people who are religious and who place a high value on social integration are more likely to examine even the most insignificant of details. For example, Christianity, largely humanistic, encourages parents to give their children as much autonomy as possible from an early age. On the other hand, Hinduism, which places a high priority on statism, recommends that parents consult their children’s elders before making important life choices. It is a wonderful instance of how people from many walks of life have unique perspectives on the nature of the parent-child bond. Similarly, adherents of socialistic religions believe that advancement and personal excellence result from a collaborative effort. In contrast, adherents of capitalistic religions believe that brilliance results from an individual’s arduous efforts.

Cognitive Dimension Expectancy/Attribution Theory


The expectancy theory argues that an individual is expected to behave in a particular manner due to motivation from such specific behavior over others due to the outcome of the selected behavior in return (Graham, 1991). In the religious arena, some religions expect that people should abide by its teachings, values, and standards due to the expected results from some teachings. For instance, Christianity expects children are given independence to make decisions that are likely to influence their future lives. Conversely, other faiths like Hinduism advocate for kids to consult their parents and elders regarding their critical decisions. According to them, underage children cannot make important ethical and moral decisions (Orton, 2016). Generally, there has been a supremacy battle in several religions concerning which one gives true and ethical teachings to the society, hence the religious civil conflict.

Analysis of such religious confrontations can be done through the attribution theory from several angles. First, there are circumstances in which a person’s religious identification can be detrimental, while there are other scenarios in which it can be beneficial. It can, in general, result in complications. However, in a highly competitive political system, some politicians from the community that is in the majority can also use religious identity to rally their people, which can have devastating effects (Shoemaker & Edmonds, 2016). Using religious identity to get justice for vulnerable minorities is one use of religious identity. There is a higher incidence of violent conflict in developing nations where religion plays a more prominent role in public life. Religion is more likely to be politicized and become a source of conflict in areas with low levels of education and intellectual development, where religion plays a larger role, there are not many resources, and the powerful are more likely to seize what they can(Orton, 2016).

There have been times throughout history when religion and interactions between different faiths did not contribute to strife in the wider world. When compared to other factors, nationalism is by far the most significant contributor to violent conflict and destructive behavior in more advanced cultures and countries (Orton, 2016). Historically, some religious conflicts broke out in Europe at the time that Protestants severed their ties with the Catholic Church. On the other hand, religion was not the only factor in this clash, despite what is commonly believed. The protestant movement received support from several princes who desired to free themselves Proper Noun (ETS from the political authority exercised by the Church (Shoemaker & Edmonds, 2016). In addition, it held a monopoly on political power and held the position of Europe’s most powerful leader. The Protestant movement called into doubt the Church’s religiously and politically powerful and Possessive TS worked to liberate people from the Church’s repressive grasp on them.

Interactional Dimension- Episode theory

Missing”,” The Episode theory assumes that communication is an activity in which people create an episode. In social confrontations, people may disagree about how to act and the rules. When one person tells another that their behavior breaks a rule or goes against what is expected of them in the partnership or situation, this is the start of a confrontation (Newell & Stutman, 1991). The conflict could be as small as having poor etiquette or as big as cheating on one’s partner. In social confrontation, people disagree about how they should act and have to work out what is expected of them in the long run. Social conflicts usually involve the same problems and happen in the same order. One thing that needs to be settled before the dilemma can be looked at is whether or not the principle in question is legitimate (Joseph et al., 2021). Whether the regulation is recognized, understood, or denied affects how the episode goes. The rule can be used to evaluate questionable behavior if this is clear.

It’s important to keep in mind that many people want to live in harmony, and for them, religious ideology is the only thing that gives them solace, a social identity, and safety. Most of these religious people care about divine progress and aspects that are not part of their daily lives. Article Error (ETS Their objective is to stay away from the world’s problems and regulate their urges or greed. Thousands of people look up to them and honor what they have done for others. However, some shady people may take advantage of the crowd, but that does not mean that the trend as a whole is bad (Orton, 2016). This does not mean that religion and conflict have nothing to do with each other. However, this shows that religion is not the only root cause of conflict. People fight because they have distinct ambitions in life, not necessarily because of their religion. Faith and religious beliefs have a powerful emotional force used by clerics, politicians, other societal and cultural leaders, and many others to advance their aspirations. Furthermore, when such people collaborate and use religion to further ideological objectives, it can lead to much controversy. Confused (ETS Individuals and the government can still be the real cause. When clerics work with politicians, they do it to get what they desire. Religion is frequently used for political gain, even in modern democracies (Orton, 2016). This makes religion less holy and gives those in power what they desire.

Otherwise, if people care about how holy their faith is, they would never let it be used for selfish purposes. In a competitive system of democracy and a community with many prep. (ETS religious faiths, the chance that religion will become political is unlimited. In some instances, being religious can hurt; in other situations, it can help. Religious identity can be used to get equality for poor minorities. However, in a competitive democratic structure, some people from the majority group can also use religious identity to mobilize their participants, which can have terrible results (Orton, 2016). This shows more conflicts in developing economies where religion plays a significantly larger role in the public realm. Religion is polarized and causes conflict in 6

Areas with low literacy and cognitive growth levels, where there are few resources and the mighty are inclined to seize what they can.

Comparison & Conclusion

A conflict is usually a disagreement between a person, group, or many groups. Once one Article Error (ETS group of people inside a larger group turns against or disagrees with another group within the same large group due to religious grounds, this is an example of religious conflict(Joseph et al., 2021). To put it differently, religious conflict can be internal and external because the people involved are typically members of the same larger community and individuals from other groups. Civil disputes can include disagreements over religious doctrine. Particular disputes and conflicts can arise due to how individuals connect, interact, and associate with one another. This is true regardless of whether the parties involved do this intentionally or unconsciously. It is common knowledge that people of different ethnicities, ethnic origins, and religious leanings can generate conflict between one another (Joseph et al., 2021). This is especially true when considering many civilizations’ multicultural and diverse make-up. For example, various societies may have views, values, conventions, and customs that directly oppose one another. This is primarily due to the fact that different societies are comprised of individuals who were brought up and educated differently.

When it comes to civil conflict and communication, factors such as religion and faith have played a significant role mostly because of the make-up of societies and the heterogeneity within them. With regard to religious conflict in the expectancy dimension, each religion tries to outshine the other in terms of moral and ethical teachings, especially in the expected outcomes of such teachings. However, it is uncalled for such a conflict to be experienced, as each group should focus on the bigger picture of societal wellness. From the episode perspective, religious parties communicate and exchange confrontations that may cause unnecessary episodes and drama to the public. Regardless of which religion or faith has ethical and moral teachings, they should collaborate and supplement each other for their mutual benefit and the larger society. Otherwise, the lack of proper communication channels to address burning issues will fuel the existing conflict rather than solve it.

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8 References

  1. Graham, S. (1991). A review of attribution theory in achievement contexts. Educational Psychology Review, 3(1), 5-39.
  2. Newell, S. E., & Stutman, R. K. (1991). The episodic nature of social confrontation. Annals of the International Communication Association, 14(1), 359-395.
  3. Orton, A. (2016). Interfaith dialogue: seven key questions for theory, policy, and practice. Religion, State and Society, 44(4), 349-365.
  4. Shoemaker, T., & Edmonds, J. (2016). The limits of interfaith? Interfaith identities, emerging potentialities, and exclusivity. Culture and Religion, 17(2), 200-212.
  5. Joseph P. Folger, Marshall Scott Poole, and Randall K. Stutman (2021). WORKING THROUGH CONFLICTS, Strategies for Relationships, Groups, and Organizations. 1-369
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