What is English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI)?

English as a medium of instruction (EMI) is a method to teach academic subjects in countries were English is not the first language. According to Shimauchi’s (2018) book, this teaching system has become a growing phenomenon in non-English countries, since many of them are in processing of educational transformation. However, it has been possible to notice a clear inequality of ideas about the program and what it provides. In addition, the impact that this program is producing, have caught the attention of many experts, academics, educators, linguistic teachers, and students, which had led them to analyze EMI’s ideologies and affects in different contexts. Thus, this annotated bibliography is compiled to tackle the perceptions and approaches about EMI program across countries. To get a glimpse at EMI’s worldwide observation and its impact, difficulties, and some recommendations, Chalmers, H. (2019) will please us. To discuss over the Asian’s countries perceptions and approaches, we may present the Galloway, Kriuknow and Numajiri’s (2017) academic report. To see more deeply the impact and development of EMI on Japan and China; we are going to use Galloway’s (2017) interview report. To analyze what the Peruvians perceptions and approaches towards EMI are; we will use Niño-Murcia’s (2003) research article. Likewise, J.E. Dearden & Macaro’s (2016) research article will provide us an investigation about teacher’s perceptions towards EMI in 3 different countries as Polonia, Austria, and Italy. Finally, Shohamy (2012) will supply a worldwide observation and approaches about the EMI’s types of learning process and some notable issues about the program within non-English countries.

Chalmers, H. (2019) The Role of the First Language in English Medium Instruction. University
Oxford, UK. Retrieved from. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330566949_The_Role_of_the_First_Language_ in_English_Medium_Instruction

The purpose of this academic research by Hamish Chalmers is to inform about the EMI development as an only English program and persuade recommendations to encourage policymakers, school leaders, and teachers to consider the information given when making decision about the implement of EMI education in their local context. The author mentioned that the objectives for EMI education are shaped by the perspectives of policymaker in each country as Spain, Argentina, Hon Kong, Czech Republic, etc. Chlamers (2019) claims that the EMI’s program growing popularity provides a unique opportunity for policymakers and school leaders to lead the way in emphasizing the importance of supporting the develop of students’ first language (L1) alongside English, since having access to the L1 enriches engagement, nurtures well-being, and strengthen identity. The method the author used to support the research was by present deep investigations, researches, data collection and analysis. The intended audience are academics, linguistic teachers, students interested in linguistic, EMI’s faculty members, and Schools and University’s directors who have EMI in their teaching pedagogy. The relationship between the readers and the author is formal as the Oxford University Press provide this academic research.
Dearden & Macaro. (2016). Higher education teachers’ attitudes towards English medium instruction: A three-country comparison. Studies in Second Language Learning and
Teaching. Retrieved from. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=430056
The purpose of this research article by Julie Dearden and Ernesto Macaro is to inform and compare the attitudes of university teachers engaged in teaching their academic subject through the EMI program in Austria, Italy, and Poland. The authors explained that the choice of these three countries was an opportunity to provide them a different and potentially European context. Moreover, they added that according to the interviewees, indeed the EMI is on the increase in non-English countries. Dearden and Macaro (2016) claim that there is considerable variance in the beliefs and attitudes of EMI teachers with EMI being introduced in their countries. The inside nation variety goes from practically inadequate excitement to significant worry about the speed, absence of organization, low semantic capability, and general help for EMI programs. The method they used to support their research was doing 25 teacher interviews and surveys. The intended audience are academics, students interested in linguistics, EMI’s researchers and universities’ directors. The relationship established between the authors and the readers is completely formal as this research article belongs to the department of English Studies of the Adam Mickiewicz University.

Galloway et al. (2016). Internationalization, higher education, and the growing demand for
English: an investigation into the English medium of instruction (EMI) movement in
China and Japan. British Council. Retrieved from.

The purpose of this academic report by Nicola Galloway, Jaroslaw Kriukow and Takuya
Numajiri; is to inform about how EMI is implemented and conceptualized in the Japanese and Chinese context. Also, the report mentions EMI’s benefits and challenges that involves in higher education and wants to persuade about a range of practical suggestions and recommendations for different stakeholders. The authors analyze the EMI’s growth in both countries and examinate the ideologies towards it. Galloway, Kriukow and Numnajiri (2016) claim that both students and faculty members in Japan and China, have different attitudes and perceptions about EMI. For example, according to the authors, many faculty members believe that EMI programs should use mother tongue as a useful pedagogical tool; however, students do not favor the use of mother tongue in class. The method that they used to support the report was interviews, focus groups with staff and students, and questionnaires. The intended audience are academics, linguistic teachers, students interested in linguistics, stakeholders, materials writers, and policymakers. The relationship established between Galloway, Kriuknow and Numajiri and the readers is formal.

Galloway, N. (2017). How Effective is English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI)? . British Council. Retrieved from. https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/how-effectiveenglish-medium-instruction-emi

The purpose of this interview report by the British Council is to inform about Galloway’s research about the EMI’s efficiency and to talk about the different perspectives, development, and impact about the program in two Asian countries. Galloway (2017) wanted to find out other people’s attitudes, approaches to, forces behind and points of view towards EMI; in order to do that, she did a research focusing on Japan and China. She found out that in Japan students had begun taking English from a more youthful age and had more experience abroad. Additionally, that when understudies select EMI program to improve their English capability, they expect a degree of English language support. Therefore, the author claims that universities need to provide a clear rationale for EMI programs, what they hope the students will learn, and how much English will be used. The method that Galloway used to support her work was by developing questionnaires, interviews, and focus groups with staff and students at various universities. The intended audience are academics, EMI’s students and school and university’s directors. The relationship between Galloway and the readers is formal because this interview was published on the British Council web page.

Niño-Murcia, M. (2003). “English is like the dollar”: hard currency ideology and the status of
English in Peru. World English, 22(2), 121-142. Retrieved from

The purpose of this academic research by Mercedes Niño-Murcia is to inform about the Peruvian’s perceptions, ideologies and misinterpretations towards the English language and persuade to be aware and concern about it. Concerning the educational system, Niño-Murcia (2003) observed that English gets more attention than any other foreign language and that private schools provide a higher level of English. Therefore, she pointed out that achieving proficiency in English in Peru continues to be a privilege of the upper classes, who attended bilingual schools or study and travel abroad. The author claims that there is a clear preference, respect, and desire about the English language; and states that Peruvians seems to think that if you do not know English, you will not prosper. The method she used to support her research was to present graphic statistics, do interviews and recollect local testimonies from an agro-pastoral village in the Andes, at the periphery of Lima and from an upper-class shopping area. The intended audience are academics, students interested in linguistics, researchers about EMI in different countries and sociologists. The relationship between the author and the readers is formal as
Mercedes Niño-Murcia is a professor in the Department of Spanish and Portuguese at the University of Iowa.

Shohamy, E. (2012). A critical perspective on the use of English as a medium of instruction at universities. Linguistic Landscape: Expanding the Scenery. Retrieved from

The purpose of this part of the book by Elana Shohamy is to present a critical perspective of EMI taught and to inform about the student’s difficulties and issues presented during EMI’s learning process, also to encourage a serious research towards EMI to improve its implementation before it is adopted at a wider scale, to guarantee an egalitarian education. The author explained and did a deeply analysis about the consequences on learning content via second language (L2) for immigrant students; using a school language which is different than home language; learning content via L2 for majority students; and learning through EMI at universities. Shohamy (2012) claims that certain EMI’s impact points lead to negative consequences such as: discrimination towards students with low levels of English. The method the author used to support her book was to present analysis about 4 settings of Medium of Instruction, used statistics, demonstrated three main issues towards EMI, and cited different authors and experts. The intended audience of the book are critics of EMI, academics, linguistic teachers, students interested in linguistics, schools and university’s directors and researchers of EMI’s effectiveness. The relationship established between Shohamy and the readers is formal, as this is part of her book “Linguistic Landscape:
Expanding the Scenery”.

Shimauchi, S. (2018). English-Medium Instruction in the Internationalization of Higher
Education in Japan: Rationales and Issues. Educational Studies in Japan: International
Yearbook. Retrieve from. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1182867.pdf

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