Treating people like property and owning and managing them is slavery. Multiple tribes
and civilizations have engaged in it throughout human history for a considerable amount of time.
The deprivation of fundamental human rights, discrimination, and forced labor are commonly
linked to slavery. Enslaved people frequently experience violence and cruelty at the hands of
their masters and are viewed as less than human. In addition to severing families, taking
advantage of weaker groups, and maintaining injustice and inequality, slavery also entails these
things. Slavery is frequently utilized as a motif in literature and art to examine issues of power,
inequality, and injustice. It is frequently portrayed as a brutal and horrible system. Many literary
and artistic works that address slavery are critical of the institution and aim to confront and
expose the violence and injustice it inherently entails.
The subject of slavery is an essential topic in the writings of Frederick Douglass, William
Wells Brown, and George Fitzhugh. These authors discuss the system of slavery and its effects
on enslaved African Americans in the United States in their writings from the middle of the 19th
century. From George Fitzhugh's book "Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free Society,"
slavery is preferable to liberty and equality. He argues that free societies are intrinsically
unstable and prone to collapse and that slavery is a more desirable and inherent social structure.
The encounters of enslaved African Americans are narrated in "Clotel; or, The President's
Daughter: A Narrative of Slave Life in the United States," a book by William Wells Brown. The
concept of slavery and how it dehumanizes and oppresses black people is the book's central
theme. In his lecture "What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?," Frederick Douglass discussed the
predicament of enslaved individuals in the United States. He contends that the institution of

slavery is intrinsically evil and that the Fourth of July, which is a holiday honoring liberation,
serves as a reminder of the continued discrimination and inequity experienced by African
With reference to George Fitzhugh's book "Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free
Society," slavery is preferable to liberty and equality. Former slave Frederick Douglass
characterizes slavery as an inhumane practice that robs individuals of their humanity and dignity.
According to him, the Declaration of Independence's concepts of equality and liberty are
inherently irreconcilable with the system of slavery. Douglass outlines the horrifying conditions
that enslaved people had to endure, including physical mistreatment, being kept apart from their
families, and living in constant terror of being sold. Additionally, he talks about the
psychological effects of slavery, such as the loss of identity and the inability to build enduring
He contends that these conditions were purposefully imposed on enslaved people to crush
their spirits and prevent them from rising against their masters. Douglass also addresses the
common idea that slavery was a necessary measure, arguing that slavery was a moral crime with
no place in a culture that claimed to value freedom and equality. He draws attention to the fact
that many of the Founding Fathers, revered as the heroes of American independence, were
enslavers who benefited from the labor of enslaved people. He contends that their duplicity
throws into question the basic foundations of the United States and casts doubt on the legitimacy
of the American Revolution.
The encounters of African Americans slaves in the United States are depicted in Clotel;
or, The President's Daughter: A Narrative of Slave Life in the United States by William Wells
Brown. The book's central theme is the arbitrariness and brutality of slavery. According to

Brown, slave owners are arbitrary and violent, frequently using violence and punishment on their
slaves without cause. The idea that enslaved people are beneath humanity and deserve to be
mistreated frequently serves as justification for this cruelty. Brown, for instance, states, "It is
true, he had no cause of complaint against her; but it was his nature to be cruel."
The book's other central theme is how slavery splits families apart. Brown demonstrates
how the ability of slave masters to divide families into parents and children, husbands and wives,
and siblings also demonstrated. This separation is painful for enslaved families, who frequently
have to live without the warmth and support of their loved ones. "I have seen the mother leave
her infant behind her, and when she returned, she found it dead," one character says. "I have seen
the heartbroken mother who, for weeks and months, has pined for the sight of her children."
The book also exposes the hypocrisy of slaveholders who identify as Christians while
continuing the evil and immoral institution of slavery. Brown demonstrates how many slave
owners use religion to excuse their behavior while committing crimes against fellow humans, "I
have heard the slaveholder pray to God for mercy and forgiveness; and in the same breath, curse
and condemn the poor slave." Clotel" is a potent critique of the institution of slavery and is a
stark reminder of the terrible human cost of this cruel and degrading system. A potent reminder
of the necessity of confronting and eliminating slavery in all of its forms may be found in
Brown's book.
As per George Fitzhugh's book "Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free Society,"
slavery is preferable to liberty and equality. According to Fitzhugh, slavery benefited both
enslaved people and slave owners. Because their masters give them food, shelter, and safety, he
contends that enslaved people are better off under slavery. He also asserts that enslaved people
are happier and more content in their servile roles and that enslaved people are incapable of

caring for themselves in a free society. Fitzhugh contends that slavery benefits slave owners by
enabling them to sustain a prosperous and stable society.
He contends that slavery allows for a more effective division of labor and that slaves are
more devoted and diligent than free laborers. In addition, he claims that slavery is necessary to
safeguard the interests of the wealthy and powerful and to stop society from degenerating.
Fitzhugh's perspective on slavery is seriously faulty and incorrect, despite his defenses. He
disregards slavery's intrinsic injustice and inhumanity and how it deprives enslaved individuals
of fundamental human rights. Additionally, he ignores how slavery contributes to injustice and
prejudice by creating social and economic instability.
In conclusion, slavery has been a persistent and widespread theme throughout human
history. The writings of Frederick Douglass, William Wells Brown, and George Fitzhugh all
draw attention to the egregious unfairness and inhumanity of the institution of slavery and
provide scathing critiques of it. While Brown's book and Douglass's speech are strong critiques
of the institution of slavery, Fitzhugh's work, "Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free
Society," is evidence of the era engrained racism and injustice. His arguments are wrong-headed
and factually erroneous, in addition to being morally unacceptable. These pieces act as a
reminder of the necessity to confront and abolish slavery in all of its manifestations and to fight
toward a future in which everyone is genuinely free and equal.



Douglass, F. (2019). What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?. In Ideals and Ideologies (pp. 377-
381). Routledge.
Fanuzzi, R. (2001). Clotel; or, The President's Daughter: A Narrative of Slave Life in The United
Fitzhugh, G. (1854). Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free Society.

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