Depression is a mental disorder that negatively affects how an individual feels, thinks, and acts. Depression is pictured by loss of pleasure, and energy, suicidal thoughts, and difficulty Article Error (ETS concentrating These symptoms vary from mild to severe. The symptoms usually last for a few P/V ETS days to reveal an alteration in the individual’s levels of functioning for a diagnosis of depression. Medical conditions can also reveal signs of depression, necessitating proper investigations to rule out medical causes. Depression can affect individuals at any age across the gender facilitated by several factors, for instance, genetic factors, differences in personalities, and brain biochemistry. People with low self-esteem are easily hit by stress. Depression also runs in families. Victims of P/V TS domestic violence, neglect, poverty, and abuse are more vulnerable to depression. The fact that depression can affect all individuals regardless of age and gender makes it a key topic in mental health.

Literature review

Depression is a form of extreme sadness and a disorder that interferes with the brain and the body. It alters cognitive behavior and the immune and peripheral nervous systems. Depression is Article Error (ETS regarded as a disorder since it interferes with the ordinary functioning of an individual in their daily activities. Depression is frequent and oppressive, unlike other mental illnesses such as normal grief. It also differs from mourning in that depressed person shows their sense of emptiness in themselves.

Depression symptoms vary from mild to severe and can range from simple to complex and disabling. There are three significant symptoms of depression: affective signs, cognitive symptoms, and somatic symptoms. Affective symptoms are characterized by loss of pleasure and interest in previously interesting things Overwhelming sadness, despair, hopelessness, and self- P/V (ETS hatred are also familiar. Cognitive symptoms such as impaired judgments, intensive self-criticism, and guilt interfere with the patient’s thinking and reasoning. On the worst extreme, suicidal thoughts emerge in depressed individuals. Somatic symptoms are characterized by fatigue, hypersomnia, headache, pain in the muscles, and loss of sexual urge Article Br

There are two subtypes of depression: anaclitic depression and introjected depression, according to Blatt (1974). Blatt’s theories focused on an individual’s internal experiences and life experiences. An individual suffering from anaclitic depression has intense and chronic fears of being left out and not taken care of. These individuals desperately need close interaction with others to satisfy their experiences and needs. They rely on others’ assurances of their well-being and, therefore, have difficulties expressing their anger for fear of being sidelined. Separation from others is their greatest fear.

Introjective depression is characterized by feelings of worthlessness, self-critic, failure, and guilt Individuals suffering from this disorder frequently engage in harsh self-scrutiny and evaluation. They fear being disapproved and criticized by others based on their personality, and they lose Eordused themselves in seeking approval from others. These individuals struggle to chase achievements and P/V ETS perfection. Due to their intense competition in workplaces or schools, introjective depressed individuals end up attacking others and even themselves to achieve and maintain approval. Introjectively depressive people seek self-explanation for painful experiences when mistreated or Sp. (ETS P/V (ETS


Models of Depression

Article Error (ETS)  Biological model

According to this model, depression is characterized by disproportional neurotransmitters such as serotine, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Serotine is involved in excitement and well-being of an PIV ETS individual, while noradrenalin engages in fight-flight, attention, and focus. Dopamine is responsible for pleasure and reward. Antidepressants facilitate the brain systems to release, absorb Article Error (ETS or stop the effect of these neurotransmitters creating an antidepressant effect in the brain.

Some neurotransmitters, such as neuroendocrine, affect the brain. The hypothalamus, the pituitary, and adrenal glands have significant roles in the physical responses of an individual to stress and the regulation of psychological processes. Overreaction of these glands leads to depression as a result of an increase in cortisol levels. An increase in cortisol levels negatively affects metabolism and the immune system leading to impairment in memory. Increased cortisol levels also worsen illnesses that are common in depressed people.

Psychoanalytic model Article Error (ETS

According to this model, depressed individuals develop defense mechanisms to hamper anxiety. Reverting anger against self resolves the stress by getting meaning from abandonment and gives Pronoun (ETS the individual a way of preventing more abandonment. In turn, the individual gains a sense of control over their emotions and controls their feelings of vulnerability. The individual view guilt as a better option than despair. Frag.

This model further suggests that the family setup of an individual with depressive tendencies may result in painful feelings, denial, and grief. The depressed individual takes care of the family emotionally by taking their grief. Experiences of punishment for expressing feelings of hurt in such families are every day, where the depressed person fell mocked for crying. From this theory, depression originates in the loss that leads to natural grief. Expression of anger from painful Article Error (TS feelings makes depressed individuals feel bad about themselves. The sense of feeling inadequate, worthless, and inferior makes individuals block the expressions of anger and hurt. Proofread (TS

Cognitive behavioral model

Aaron Beck pioneered this theory. The theory focuses on the components of psychological

problems associated with four domains: cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and physical. The mental Article Error (Ers aspect comprises memories, beliefs, and images that automatically reappear in an individual’s brain. These memories, thoughts and images lead to emotions that affect an individual’s behaviors. These domains are interactive, where a change in one directly affects the others. This theory formulates a method for generating the cause of depression and what sustains it in an individual. Factors causing depression include the tendency to view things from a pessimistic perspective. Individuals’ perceptions and interpretations of events have a bearing on the emergence of depression. The cognitive behavioral theory views schemas as originating from childhood, whereas negatively oriented schemas make individuals vulnerable to depression. Negative schemas influence how individuals view the world, creating a particular susceptibility to depression. After individuals negatively interact with causative factors, there emerge sustainers of the negative thoughts. The individual selectively recalls the unpleasant moments. This, in turn, Article Error (TS influences how the victim associates with the environment and maintains a sense of desperation for the future. The depression becomes self-initiating.

Psychological Theories of Depression

Article Error (TS There are four principal psychological theories on depression, namely behaviorist theory,

psychodynamic theory, cognitive theory, and humanist theory. Behaviorist Theory

This focuses on the necessity of the surrounding in conditioning behavior. The emphasis is on appreciable traits and conditions through which people acquire behaviors. According to this theory, depression is the outcome of an individual’s interaction with the environment. Depression affects an individual through association with negative thoughts, according to classical conditioning. Social learning depression is gotten from observations, mimicking, and reinforcement of negative stimuli. Operant conditioning asserts that depression is as a result of distinction of positive support from the surrounding. Situations like the loss of a job lead to depression because of the removal of the social aspect of the individual. People who are depressed become reduce their socialization. In addition to the removal of positive reinforcement from the environment, depression can result from the reinforcement of causative behaviors by other individuals.

This theory is sensible in reactive depression, where there is an apparent agent of depression. This theory is limited in that it does not address depression, which does not have a clear cause. The theory further fails to explain the account of thoughts’ influence on depression.

Psychodynamic theory

This theory views depression as anger directed towards self inwardly leading to loss of love, severe Pronoun Article Error (ETS) super ego-demands, oral and anal personality needs and reduced mother-child relationship at early age. Freud argued that most depression cases are due to inborn factors. He asserted that depression could be linked to loss or rejection by parents. Depression is grief that usually occurs as a result of a meaningful relationship. Depressed people regard themselves as worthless. As a result of the loss of a significant relationship, anger is directed within the self for the depressed person. This inward- Pronoun (ETS Article Error (ETS) directed anger reduces an individual’s esteems and makes them candidates to depression. Freud Wrong Form T Prep. differentiated between substantial and unsubstantial losses. Substantial loss involves the death of a loved one, while extended loss involves the removal of an essential activity, like the loss of a job. Both losses produce depression by making the individual recall childhood experiences every time they lose attachment to crucial people.

Freud modified the theory by asserting that loss of objects is average and depression results from dominant super-ego. To avoid depression, the individual should intentionally forget the dead Article Error (TS person as a means of reducing the anger resulting from grief feelings. Individuals that lack self- confidence but rather rely on others views of themselves are unable to cope with inward-directed Proofread (ETS anger. The psychoanalytic theory of depression is influenced by the loss of self-esteem, object loss, and hypersensitivity to loss of socialization P/V TS

Psychoanalytic theory is limited since it cannot be tested scientifically. Many of its core features cannot be precisely defined to allow empirical evaluation. Therefore, the approach lacks a scientific aspect but majorly focuses on art. The thesis also emphasizes unconscious processes and early childhood experiences, making clinicians overlook certain aspects of this mental disorder.

Cognitive theory

Cognitive theory emphasizes people’s conviction more than their conducts. Depression emerges from systematic negative approaches in the thinking process. Emotional and behavioral symptoms result from cognitive alteration. Depressed victims think differently from mentally sound individuals. The cognitive theory further alters the victims feeling, marking the onset of depression. According to Aaron Beck, depressed people negatively appraise activities. Depressed people view themselves as helpless, worthless, and inadequate. They interpret the world as having handles that cannot be overcome. The victims interpret the environment in an unrealistic way. Depressed people see the future as hopeless and worthless, limiting their capabilities to improve themselves. Through interaction between the negative view of the world, negative view of self Article Error Pronoun (ETS) and pessimistic view of the future, depressed individuals acquire impaired perceptions making it Article Error (ETS difficult for them make rational decisions Verb ETS Garbled ETS

Humanist Theory

This theory argues that some needs are peculiar to human beings. According to Maslow (1962), conditions geared toward self-actualization are the most basic. Self-actualized people lead meaningful lives. Anything interfering with the process of self-actualization poses a risk of one landing into depression. For instance, parents may impart conditions of worth to their children. Instead of accepting the child for who they are and giving them unconditional love, they impose constraints on good behavior. A child may be blamed for performing poorly in class and developing a negative self-image, making them depressed. Self-realization can be underrated by sad relations and unedifying jobs. In a substandard marriage means one lacks affectionate love from their partner, which may be a strong base for the emergence of depression.

Mental Health in Canadian Society Article Error

Depression affects almost all Canadians at some time in their lives. According to statistics, one in every five people is experiencing depression. Depression affects people regardless of their age, education levels, and cultures but to a different extent. Systematic inequalities like racism, poverty, Missing” homelessness, discrimination and gender-based violence worsen depression, mostly where healthcare facilities are inaccessible. Depression affects approximately five point four percent of Wrong Article (TS the Canadian population. The leading cause of depression in Canada is life events such as violence and trauma in childhood, environmental factors, stigma and discrimination from mental illness, and a complex combination of genetic, biological, and personality factors. Life events during childhood or adulthood have given rise to depression, especially where help was not sought at depression onset. Stigmatization Article Error (ETS and discrimination against those affected have deepened the social marginalization of depression victims.


Depression is a mental disorder that many people in society frequently encounter. It is essential for therapists to familiarize themselves with the manifestations of depression to lay an elaborate treatment measure. Recognition of factors that influence the occurrence and sustenance of depression triggers provides therapists with factual firsthand information for depression victims. Understanding the internal systems and processes of depression assists therapists in refining their treatment plan to align with each patient’s needs and offer appropriate interventions.

From the research, the theories of depression have enabled me to identify the potential factors that trigger depression. Depression triggers and sustainers revolve around individuals thinking and perceiving the environment around them. Frequent interactions with a negatively biased climate are a potential cause of depression, primarily for individuals who depend on others’ approval of self-worth. However, more research needs to be carried out on treating depression since almost every individual is vulnerable to it.

If I were to carry out the same research, I would focus on treatment strategies for depression. Much research has been dominated on what causes depression, how depression thrives in individuals, Prep. ETS and how to avoid it. From the theories of depression, some inborn values are complex to avoid when dealing with depression. No individual has control over their genetic makeup. This implies

that if the parents are carriers of such genetic traits, the child acquires them automatically.

Exposure to these traits in a negatively biased environment lands the child into depression.

Focusing on the treatment of depression will therefore be crucial for such cases.






Subscribe For Latest Updates
Let us notify you each time there is a new assignment, book recommendation, assignment resource, or free essay and updates