DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERMS: 1. Stratified society – people grouped according to economic or social class; characterized by the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige 2. Negative affective states – anger, frustration, and adverse emotions produced by a variety of sources of strain 3. Social classes – segment of the population whose members are at a relatively similar economic level and who share attitudes, values, norms, and an identifiable lifestyle 4. Focal concerns – values, such as toughness and streets smarts, that have evolved specifically to fit conditions in lower-class environments 5. White privilege – The assumed societal privileges that benefit Caucasians and provide them with opportunities not available to non-white people under the same social, political, or economic circumstances. 6. Cultural transmission – process whereby values, beliefs, and traditions are handed down from one generation to the next 7. Black Lives Matter (BLM) – A movement whose aim is to reduce institutional violence and perceived systemic racism toward black people. 8. Delinquent subculture – a value system adopted by lower-class youths that is directly opposed to that of the larger society 9. Culture of poverty – a separate lower-class culture, characterized by apathy, cynicism, helplessness, and mistrust of social institutions such as schools, government agencies, and the police, that is passed from one generation to the next 10. Status frustration – a form of culture conflict experienced by lower-class youths because social conditions prevent them from achieving success as defined by the larger society 11. Underclass – the lowest social stratum in any country, whose members lack the education and skills needed to function successfully in modern society 12. Middle-class measuring rods – the standards by which authority figures, such as teachers and employers, evaluate lower-class youngsters and often prejudge them negatively 13. Social structure theory – the view that disadvantaged economic class position is a primary cause of crime 14. Reaction formation – irrational hostility, evidenced by young delinquents, who adopt norms directly opposed to middle-class goals and standards that seem impossible to achieve 15. Social disorganization theory – branch of social structure theory that focuses on the breakdown in inner-city neighborhoods of institutions such as the family, school, and employment 16. Differential opportunity – the view that lower-class youths, whose legitimate opportunities are limited, join gangs and pursue criminal careers as alternative means to achieve universal success goals 17. Strain theory – Branch of the social structure theory that sees crime as a function of the conflict between people’s goals and the means available to obtain them 18. Strain – the anger, frustration, and resentment experienced by people who believe they cannot achieve their goals through legitimate means 19. Cultural deviance theory – branch of social structure theory that sees strain and social disorganization together resulting in a unique lower-class culture that conflicts with conventional social norms 20. Subculture – a set of values, beliefs, and traditions unique to a particular social class or group within a larger society 21. Transitional neighborhood – an area undergoing a shift in population and structure, usually from middle-class residential to lower-class mixed-use 22. Social ecology school – An interdisciplinary approach to the study of interdependent social and environmental problems that cause crime. 23. Concentration effect – as working-class and middle-class families flee inner-city poverty-ridden areas, the most disadvantaged population is consolidated in urban ghettos 24. Collective efficacy – social control exerted by cohesive communities and based on mutual trust, including intervention in the supervision of children and maintenance of public order 25. Street efficacy – A concept in which more cohesive communities with high levels of social control and social integration foster the ability for kids to use their wits to avoid violent confrontations and to feel safe in their own neighborhood. Adolescents with high levels of street efficacy are less likely to resort to violence themselves or to associate with delinquent peers 26. Anomie theory – the view that anomie results when socially defined goals are universally mandated but access to legitimate means is stratified by class and status 27. Institutional anomie theory (IAT) – the view that anomie pervades US culture because the drive for material wealth dominates and undermines social and community values 28. American Dream – the goal of accumulating material goods and wealth through individual competition; the process of being socialized to pursue material success and to believe it is achievable 29. Relative deprivation – envy, mistrust, and aggression resulting from perceptions of economic and social inequality 30. General strain theory (GST) – the view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individual’s emotional traits and responses to produce criminality PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS:
1. Explain the association between social structure and crime. social structure theory states that crime is caused because of the socioeconomic disadvantages lower class people face 2. Identify the elements of social disorganization theory. high unemployment rate school dropout rates deteriorated housing low income levels single-parent households
3. List and compare the elements of cultural deviance theory. Cultural Deviance Theory combines elements of both Strain Theory and Social Disorganization Theory. A unique lower-class culture has developed in disorganized neighborhoods. These independent subcultures maintain unique values and beliefs that conflict with conventional social norms. Criminal behavior is an expression of conformity to lower-class subcultural values and traditions, not a rebellion from conventional society. Subcultural values are handed down from one generation to the next in a process called culture transmission. .

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