Abstract Advancement in modern technology has validated the consistent introduction of progressive developments to several aspects of our daily activities, in this guise, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) alternatively referred to as Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have come to become an encompassing technological development to reckon with. In their flexibility, they have come to infiltrate practically every aspect of human field, ranging from their introduction as integral players in military operations through the years of war, before becoming key features of any civil engineering project and then finding their way into the health sector, amidst others. Their adaptability has advanced them considerable advantage over other kinds of technology, showing how they can be adapted into different technologies including Internet of Things (IoT), robotic engineering, to mention a few. Its ability in this semblance allows it to encounter and accommodate different challenges as regards motion, control, capture, graphical representations, surveillance (including visual navigation), navigation, communication, coordination (including collision detection and avoidance), air policing, as well as ground services. The research thus seeks to explore the intricacies as regards visual navigation and flight pattern technique control especially as regards the avoidance of obstacles of a UAV, it shall discuss the convolutions involved in the application of the system not barring the challenges acknowledged and attempt to proffer solutions to them based on popular technology and available literature on the topic. This would of course include the employment of other technologies like the 3D modelling or the artificial intelligence earlier mentioned.
1.1 Introduction The section shall serve in its capacity as an introductory piece to the research, laying the foundational framework upon which the subsequent parts shall be delicately balanced. It shall also offer some of the features of a standard UAV and the uses as well to enable to reader have a consistent grasp of the nature and usage of a UAV in all the fields to which it is conveniently and operationally employed. 1.2 Hardware Design This section shall serve as a descriptive aspect of the project, showing the multitude of designs and exploring their intricacies, with special attention to visual navigation as well as control maneuvers in the UAV which includes the subsystem like communication link, and ground control system, propellers, airframe, motor, power supply which are integral to its operation. 1.2.1 Aircraft Design This section shall capture the design procedure of the aircraft itself, with particular emphasis on the altitude, speed, climb rate, flight time and endurance, as well as stability. 1.2.2 Ground Control System The basic ground control system of a UAV operating system includes a wireless router as well as a mobile or computer device with the controller to capture relevant data during usage, other aspects include the open system architecture, compatibility with several platforms, communication in the case of a swarm, as well as security.
1.2.3 Data Link The communication link between the UAV as well as the ground control station (GCS) is highlighted in this section, with the usage of a wireless link, this communication is hereby guaranteed, which establishes interaction between the aircraft data unit and the GCS. 1.2.4 Accessories This section shall include the accessories of the UAV, which naturally includes multispectral cameras for photogrammetry, film shooting, mapping, digital elevation, monitoring and surveillance tools with particular attention to weight distribution. 1.2.5 Sensors This section hopes to identify some of the sensors that can be used to enable a UAV maneuver its way within and beyond obstacles dependent on the nature of usage to which it is employed. 1.3 Vision and Control Challenges in the Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles This section shall identify the several applications to which a UAV can be employed and the challenges in visual navigation and obstacle avoidance, with particular attention to the fields of specialization outlined below: Agriculture Wildlife and Forestry Defense Civil/Urban Usage Health 1.4 Resolving Identified Challenges Having outlined the challenges encountered by the device in previous sections, this section shall perform an analytical function of resolving the vision and control disadvantages while taking from the abundant collection provided above. 1.5 Suggestions and Recommendations This section shall include the suggestions based on the identified deficiencies and the solutions recommended with regards to application and imminent technological advantage. 1.6 Conclusion This shall summarize the essence of the research and present a closing argument in this regard. 1.7 References

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