A group of people coming together to work toward a shared objective or goal forms an organization. Organizations may take on a variety of shapes, including enterprises, educational institutions, governmental bodies, and non-profit associations (Hillmann & Guenther, 2021).  “An organization is a socially constructed system of interactions, arrangements, and structures that are designed to coordinate the activities of people to achieve some specific purpose or set of purposes.” “Images of Organization” by Gareth Morgan (2006 Edition). Their sizes vary, from tiny local groupings to enormous global conglomerates. The division of labor and job specialization are two essential components of an organization. An organization often separates its work into multiple teams or departments, with each member having unique functions and duties to fulfill its objectives efficiently and effectively. In addition to enabling each person to concentrate on a particular area of competence, the company maximizes the most of each person’s unique abilities and knowledge.

The hierarchy or system of authority inside an organization is another crucial factor. There is typically a clear line of command and decision-making authority in businesses, with higher-level leaders or executives making choices that are then implemented by the lower workers (Bratton, 2020). This structure contributes to the company’s well-organized and efficient operation by allowing for the division of duties and responsibilities. An organization performs within a broader ecosystem or circumstances in addition to its inner structure. This comprises the industry it serves and the more significant political, social, and economic influences that may impact how it conducts business. An organization is generally a dynamic and complicated system that requires the coordination and cooperation of numerous diverse people and pieces. An organization’s ability to accomplish its objectives and dominate its market depends on its people, structure, and surroundings, whether a smaller company or a major global enterprise.

Analysis of Organization Using Analytical Metaphors

Analytical metaphors can be used to examine a business or organization in order to gain important insights into how it is structured and operated. We may better grasp how the many components interact to help the organization achieve its objectives by comparing it to a machine, a ship, a garden, or any other metaphor (Goyal & Howlett, 2019). For instance, if we think of the organization as a machine, we could concentrate on how well its many components work together and efficiently. We could examine the operations of the many divisions and responsibilities, as well as how they interact to form a coherent and efficient whole. We could also think about how the organization’s procedures and systems are built to help and enhance how well it functions as a whole. We can pinpoint possible areas for development and strategies to enhance the effectiveness of the company by viewing it through the lens of a machine.

Microsoft Organization as an Organism

The phrase “Microsoft as an organism” may refer to this corporation or organization as a dynamic, living being that must continuously conform to its surroundings to exist and flourish. Gareth states that “The organizational organism is a complex, integrated system of many interdependent parts that work together to achieve the organization’s goals. Like a biological organism, it has the ability to adapt and change in response to its environment, and to reproduce and grow.” – “Images of Organization” by Gareth Morgan (2006 Edition). For Microsoft as a business to prosper, it must be adaptable and sensitive to changing trends. This metaphor also highlights how crucial it is to have a strong sense of mission and direction. To put it another way, a business is like an organism; it needs to be developing, adjusting, and modifying all the time to be solid and successful (Morgan, 2019). The functioning and success of Microsoft depend on a variety of units and functions, similar to a biological organism. Every division in this organization contributes to the general health and happiness of the business. This comparison is frequently used to highlight how crucial cooperation and teamwork are inside an organization.

A firm can never be an ideal organism because they are not a living thing. Nevertheless, several procedures aid a business’s efficient and effective operation. Examples of these are possessing a clear goal and vision, establishing objectives and goals, fostering effective communication between teams and departments, offering continuous guidance and assistance to staff members, and being flexible and responsive to shifting business demands and customer demands (Kalkanci et al., 2019). A corporation must also possess excellent management, a healthy workplace environment, and a dedication to moral and sustainable corporate practices.

Microsoft as a Spider’s Web

There are various ways that Microsoft Corporation is comparable to a spider’s web. The two’s structural similarities are the most striking. Microsoft comprises a network of people and departments that are all linked and collaborate to accomplish corporate goals, just like a spider’s web is fashioned in a series of interwoven threads. From the book by Gareth Morgan, “Images of Organization” “The organizational network consists of the people and departments that are all linked together in an interdependent system, working together to achieve the organization’s goals. This network of relationships and interactions is the underlying structure of the organization, and it is the source of the organization’s collective intelligence and power.” The Entertainment and Devices Division, Server and Tools, Microsoft Business Division, Windows & Windows Live Division, and Online Services Division are a few instances of Microsoft departments (Hooft Graafland, 2021). This organization’s capacity to adjust and react to shifts in its surroundings is another aspect it mimics a spider’s web. Furthermore, in reaction to alterations in its surrounding environment, like shifting market circumstances or customer desire, Microsoft can modify and adapt its strategy and operational procedures.

The efficient coordination and use of its resources allow Microsoft to accomplish its aims and objectives. The company uses its physical, fiscal, and people assets to seize and grasp onto prospects and accomplish its objectives. Microsoft’s annual financial report states that 221,000 employees work for Microsoft. Microsoft increased its long-term investments by about 15.2% in 2021 to $6.9 billion in 2022 (Górowski et al., 2022). Microsoft also boasts some of the world’s best and most admirable senior managers. Every year, the organization has achieved success thanks to excellent management. The organization, as a whole, consists of interrelated elements that cooperate to realize a single objective.

Microsoft as a clock

Microsoft can be compared to a clock in several ways. The organization is composed of a variety of components that collaborate in order to accomplish its objectives. Just like a clock, Microsoft includes departments, workers, procedures, and technologies that all collaborate to accomplish its goals. Microsoft is set up to accomplish its goals in an effective and efficient manner. The organization has been developed and optimized to carry out its functions as quickly and effectively as feasible, just like a clock has been structured and perfected through time to maintain time as precisely as possible (McDermott & Varenne, 1995). Microsoft has procedures and processes to guarantee that tasks are accomplished on time and to a professional level, just as a clock may possess an escapement mechanism that guarantees that the hands revolve at a reasonable pace.

In order to retain its success, Microsoft frequently updates and modifies its products. The organization must be frequently evaluated and updated to maintain viability, like a clock must be turned or its batteries changed to remain functional (Morgan, 2022). In order to be current and sound in a dynamic environment, Microsoft regularly examines and updates its policies and practices. The organization reviews its rules and processes at least once a year, but when novel enterprise requirements arise, they are addressed immediately. Among the changes are new international regulations like the General Data Protection Regulation. State modifications to cybersecurity laws.

Microsoft as a Tree

Due to its prominent chain of authority and hierarchical system, Microsoft can be compared to a tree. The administration or executive board serves as the tree’s trunk and is located at the top. All other branches of the organization’s tree rely on this section for help as it gives the latter guidance and leadership. The numerous organizational sections or agencies that can be compared to the tree’s branches are located beneath the management team. Every department handles a specific task and could be in charge of a particular area of the operational processes. A business might include divisions for marketing, finance, and sales. The trunk is joined to these branches. Like tree branches depend on the trunk for sustenance and stability, these branches are joined to it and depend on it for supplies. In the book “Images of Organization” by Gareth Morgan, he discusses the concept of hierarchy and chain of command in organizations. He states that “hierarchy refers to the levels of authority and responsibility in an organization, with each level having a certain amount of control over the level below it.” He also notes that the chain of command is a key aspect of organizational hierarchy, as it provides a clear line of authority and decision-making within the organization.

The individual employees, which might be compared to leaves, are located at the tree’s base. These staff members are responsible for carrying out the organization’s tasks and ensuring everything works properly. Via their directors and supervisors, they are linked to the branches and the trunk and are essential to the company’s overall performance (Pacis & VanWynsberghe, 2020). These individual employees are necessary for an organization to run smoothly, just as leaves are necessary for a tree to grow.

Microsoft as a Beehive

Because Microsoft is constituted of numerous individual employees who collaborate to achieve the same objective, it might be compared to a swarm of bees. Employees in a company collaborate to complete tasks and realize organizational goals; to generate products or services for revenue (Anyon, 2017).  The company’s executive team or leadership can be compared to a queen bee. The company’s management team is tasked with providing direction and assistance to ensure the company is prosperous. It can be imagined that every department or division of the organization has a different honeycomb inside the hive. Departments are the organizational units where staff focus on specialized duties and contribute to the achievement of the whole company. The organization’s performance depends on each department, just like a hive can only be as powerful as its constituent honeycombs. Viewing Microsoft as a beehive could be a helpful metaphor for understanding how a company or other group functions. It demonstrates the significance of people working together synchronized and integrated and stresses the value of competence, collaboration, and interaction in accomplishing the company’s goals.

Microsoft as a Vehicle

Microsoft is a tool for reaching a particular objective, much like a vehicle. The company’s purpose is to manufacture and offer products or services. It is composed of various components that collaborate to accomplish a single objective. A vehicle can move and perform its functions thanks to its engine, tires, steering wheel, and other parts. Comparable to this, the company contains several departments, groups, and personnel, each with its tasks and specific responsibilities.

The company requires various resources, including capital, workforce, and innovation, to operate and accomplish its objectives, just like a vehicle needs fuel to run. The company manufactures and distributes its goods or services using resources, including cash, labor, and technology (Davis, 2022). It also needs regular administration to guarantee that the company manages successfully and adequately. In order to secure its long-term sustainability, it must also oversee and track its progress, adjust to shifting market dynamics, and implement choices. Generally, using Microsoft as a tool is a helpful method for thinking about how a company or other organization operates. It emphasizes how crucial having a clear goal and direction is, in addition to how many components and assets must cooperate cohesively to accomplish the company’s objectives.

Microsoft as a Puzzle

Microsoft is comparable to a puzzle in many ways. The company comprises numerous interconnecting parts that combine to create a unified entity. Like puzzle pieces fit together to form an image or vision, the organization’s various components cooperate to accomplish a single objective. Each company employee has a set of duties and obligations that go toward the smooth operation of the entity as a whole. Every employee in the organization has a specific job responsibility and area of expertise that helps the team succeed (Davis, 2022). The organization requires considerable preparation and attention to ensure that it is put together and that it runs smoothly. Microsoft also needs meticulous management and decision-making to ensure that all of its components operate harmoniously and effectively.

Microsoft may also encounter difficulties that must be surmounted in order for it to succeed. The business may have to adapt and develop new ideas to overcome rivalry, internal strife, or market changes. This analogy emphasizes how crucial it is to have a clear sense of mission and direction and how crucial it is for every one of the portions and personnel to collaborate cohesively to accomplish the group’s objectives (Bronfenbrenner, 1977). Operating Microsoft can be complicated, like putting together a jigsaw, but with meticulous planning and focus, it is possible to assemble to create a harmonious and efficient whole.

Microsoft as a Symphony

Microsoft is a large corporation composed of many diverse pieces that combine to create a cohesive whole. Whereas diverse divisions, teams, and people collaborate to generate and distribute products and services in a company, various instruments and performers work together to construct a piece of music in a symphony. Each company employee has a set of duties and obligations that go toward the smooth operation of the entity as a whole (Anyon, 2017). Each member must collaborate and communicate appropriately to accomplish the company’s objectives. Every person has a specific job role and area of specialization. Rigorous administration and judgment calls are also necessary to guarantee that Microsoft runs smoothly and effectively.

To guide the musicians and produce a seamless and pleasant rendition, a symphony director should consider the various portions and instruments while also considering the composition’s essential components and rhythm. Comparable to this, to oversee and synchronize the company’s capacity, the management must take into account the many departments and personnel in addition to the overarching plan and purpose of the company. For its trustees and staff, the company may be a fulfillment form. As they assist the company in succeeding and reaching its objectives, Microsoft employees and stakeholders feel a sense of pride and satisfaction (Anyon, 2017). Microsoft is a difficult and complex undertaking like a symphony, but with careful thought and dedication, it can provide a lovely and rewarding product.

Microsoft as a ship

Microsoft is comprised of several various parts that must cooperate in order for it to attain its objective and accomplish its aims. The company has management team and personnel who collaborate to accomplish its goals. The company’s leadership team is in charge of giving guidance and oversight and ensuring the organization can accomplish its objectives. The numerous sections or segments inside the company might be compared to the various components of a ship that are vital to its effective functioning. The company has various sectors in charge of various facets of functioning. For the company to operate efficiently, all sectors must cooperate. Its workers must complete the tasks necessary for Microsoft to accomplish its objectives. The executive team, the numerous departments, and each staff are crucial for the company to operate efficiently and accomplish its objectives.

Microsoft as a Garden

Because it needs meticulous strategizing, nurturing, and upkeep in order to achieve efficiency, Microsoft’s organization might be compared to a garden. To achieve its objectives, the company’s various components should be carefully monitored (Albukhitan, 2020). The leadership team at Microsoft is in charge of selecting the company’s course of action and ensuring that the various departments within the company get the assistance and resources they need to succeed. The numerous sectors or departments inside the company can be compared to the several plants and blossoms in a garden.

The organization has various departments that are in charge of various facets of its operations, much as a garden has a variety of plants and flowers that all add to its overall well-being and beauty. For the company to succeed, all of these departments—each of which is like a particular plant or flower in the garden—must cooperate. Microsoft needs money, innovation, and other assets to run efficiently, much as a garden needs water, sunlight, and other vital elements to flourish. In general, the company can be compared to a garden since, to excel, it needs meticulous preparation, nurturing, and management. Like the numerous plants, flowers, soil, and components in a garden, the management team, the multiple sections, the company’s staff, and other crucial resources must work together for the business to succeed and meet its objectives.

Microsoft as a Book

Because it is constituted of numerous distinct sections that need to be placed and structured in a particular manner in order for the business to operate efficiently, Microsoft can be compared to a book. Similar to how a book’s cover, chapters, and pages are arranged in a particular manner to pass information and narrate a story, the organization’s many components are ordered in a particular way to meet its objectives. In the book “Images of Organization” by Gareth Morgan, he states that “organizations are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through division of labor and coordination.” He goes on to say that the structure of an organization is designed to facilitate efficient operation and achievement of its goals. You may consider Microsoft’s executive or management positions to be the book’s writers. Similarly, the company’s management team is in charge of choosing the company’s course of action and setting up its many parts effectively, productively, effectively, and efficiently.

You might think of the organization’s numerous departments and units as its multiple chapters. Microsoft is split up into various departments, each of which is in charge of various aspects of its functioning. For the company to thrive, all of these departments must cooperate, each of which is like a distinct chapter in a book. One can imagine each Microsoft employee as a sentence or a word in the book’s chapters. The company’s staff are the essential components utilized to accomplish its tasks and objectives (Mogan, 2022). It would be challenging for a company to carry out its operations without personnel.

Microsoft needs various resources and assistance to succeed in complementing the steering committee, departments, and personnel. The organization needs cash, technology, and other facilities to operate efficiently, just as a book needs an editor, a publisher, and other systems to be written and delivered. Microsoft can be compared to a book since it comprises numerous distinct parts that need to be put together and ordered in a particular manner for it to work well and accomplish its objectives.

Microsoft as a Stage Play

The stage drama Microsoft Company examines the operations of a significant organization. The play begins with a team of staff conversing about their everyday activities and difficulties in the workplace cafeteria. Some workers are notably dissatisfied with their work and their bosses’ lack of assistance (Davis, 2022). As the play goes on, diverse exchanges between personnel and their bosses, as well as among various corporate divisions, can be observed.

From his book “Images of Organization”, Gareth Morgan states that, “The organizational theater is a complex and dynamic system of interactions, performances, and roles, in which people come together to create a shared reality and achieve a common goal. Like a stage play, the organizational theater is a collaborative and creative process, in which people must work together to produce a compelling and engaging performance.”  There is a clear delineation in place, and senior leadership policies influence the tasks of those under them. The company’s CEO is a commanding and authoritarian figure who expects productivity and outcomes from his staff. A group of executives that back him is similarly committed to implementing the organization’s strategy and objectives.

As the play progresses, we observe how the CEO’s choices affect the staff, frequently required to work long shifts and forfeit their private lives for the firm’s benefit. The relationship between staff and their bosses, in addition to that between various divisions, is tense and contentious (Larson, 1997). Because of their commitment to the company and conviction in its objective, the employees continue to be committed to their work despite these obstacles. However, as the play’s plot thickens, the staff revolts against the CEO and superiors, calling for equal opportunity and enhanced working conditions. The stage play Microsoft Company offers an insightful look into the internal dynamics of the big business, showing the complicated relationships between workers and their management and the difficulties and sacrifices that Microsoft employees must make. The play provides a window into workplace strategy and the subjective condition within it by depicting the hardships and victories of the company’s staff.


Microsoft as a Choir

As a choir is a collection of people who come together to produce cohesive and harmonious music, personnel of the Microsoft Organization each contribute their distinctive talent and expertise. Nevertheless, they work as a team to create a cohesive whole (Kalkanci et al., 2019). Various experiences and qualifications can be found among the company’s employees. Some people have been employed for years, while others are just starting. They gather to establish a unified front regardless of their differences, with each person bringing their unique abilities and expertise to the organization.

Microsoft Company as a River

A river is a strong, dynamic being that is constantly flowing and changing. The Microsoft organization comprises numerous components that work together to make a coherent totality, similar to a river. The organization’s mission and vision are its core values. Microsoft’s objective is to enable every individual and every business on the earth to achieve more. The mission of Microsoft is to “assist people and businesses around the world in realizing their full potential.” This serves as the organization’s compass and points it in the right direction (Fitchett, 2019). The organization’s goal and purpose serve as the cornerstone and launch point for all of its initiatives, similar to the river source.

The organization’s employees are similar to the water in a river; everyone brings unique skills and qualities to the company. The organizational members work diligently and evolve, arriving and departing as required to accomplish the organization’s aims, just like the water in a river discharge and vary. The management of Microsoft acts as the riverbank, giving it direction and encouragement as it meanders and transforms (Morgan, 2022). The administration establishes the company’s policies and guidelines and aids in directing its workers as they strive to achieve their common objectives.

The setting in which Microsoft Company operates is comparable to a river’s terrain. The organization must navigate a sophisticated and ever-changing environment of rivals, stakeholders, and other external pressures, like a river, and should negotiate barriers and hurdles in its course (Davis, 2022). The organization can be compared to a river because it is a robust and dynamic force continually changing and adjusting to its environment. It is made up of many diverse components that collaborate to create a seamless entity, like a river, continually meandering and evolving as it traverses the potentials and difficulties of its surroundings.


In conclusion, Microsoft values efficiency, coordination, and teamwork, constantly seek new ideas, embraces challenges, and encourages employees to work together. The organization boasts of considerable preparation and attention to ensure that it is put together and that it runs smoothly. Gareth Morgan suggests using metaphors in his book “Images of Organization” as a means of comprehending and resolving organizational issues. He lists eight fundamental metaphors, including “organization as machine,” “organism,” “brain,” “culture,” “political system,” “psychic prison,” “flux and transformation,” and “instruments of domination,” and suggests using them singly or in combination to offer fresh perspectives on management and organizations. These metaphors can have an impact on stakeholder relationships as well as managers’ understanding of organizations and the problems they encounter. Just like a river, Microsoft is dynamic and can adjust to accommodate various shifting market factors. The organization must navigate a sophisticated and ever-changing environment of rivals, stakeholders, and other external pressures. Each company employee has a set of duties and obligations that go toward the smooth operation of the entity as a whole. Therefore, if one does not perform their duties, it may affect the entire company branches or departments.





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