1. First responders in the United States awareness of potential threats of secondary attack The first responders in the United States are not concerned enough by the threat potentials of secondary attacks. The response to any attacked if far beyond the expectation. This is because in United States there have never been such instances. After first attack, there are rescuers who get to the situation to assist the victims. In such instances, terrorists may set the second explosion to kill the rescuers who may get to the situation. The media people also hurriedly get to the situation to report the incidence as well. Therefore, although such a scenario has never occurred in the United States, it can lead to fatal results if it happens. However, due to the occurrences of such instances in other parts of the world, homeland security agencies are keen on security issues. People have been warned about overcrowding or rushing to areas after explosions. The security agencies also control areas after explosion to minimize the risks of losing more people after the first attack. To raise awareness level, people should be warned earlier on keeping off areas under attack. They should learn of the possibility of second attacks and hence should keep off to ensure their safety. Homeland security should also have explosive detectors who should get to bombed areas prior rescuers and news agencies getting to such areas. They should create awareness for first responders to first mind their security in such instances. Generally, there is need to train first responders on how to ensure their safety by observing set guidelines such as first allowing explosive detectors to get to the site. 2. Threats of secondary attack Threats of secondary attacks are real enough to mandate training on how to respond to potential terrorists. Lack of proper training in response to secondary attack can lead to fatal deaths in either secondary or subsequent attacks. Terrorists in previous attacks have been set two or several explosives in a particular area to maximize number of attacks in an area. In some cases, they set suicide bombers who get to scene of incidence to kill the crowd that may gather curious to see what happened. Therefore, there should be enough mandate training on how to respond to potential terrorist attacks with potential in mind. First, respondents should be aware that there might be other explosives on the ground. Therefore, training should be on controlling crowd not to get to the scene of incidence or retrieving them from the scene. Secondly, training should be on how to detect explosives that may be on the scene. This will ensure safety of the first respondents. The third stage should be rescuing the victims. Law enforcement is essential to secure the scene of the attack before first respondents get to the scene. This is to ensure that the crowd and the media people do not get to the scene obstructing recurring missions or giving an upper hand for terrorist to re-attack them. Law enforcement played a critical role during the Hutaree Militia of Michigan. The Hutaree Militia of Michigan was allegedly plotting to set off a secondary bomb during a law enforcement funeral after their first proposed attack 3. How first responders be trained to be aware of and be on the lookout for, and research on secondary attacks There is a great need to research secondary attacks that have occurred in the past to ensure that the subsequent attack is not fatal. The first respondents should be on lookout for secondary attacks, and hence all critical measures to ensure their safety and the safety of surviving victims should be paramount. Research on the trends of terrorists’ behaviors is very essential since they use almost similar tactics. Adequate research on earlier attacks gives the first respondents an upper hand in responding to attacks. Research is an essential tool to ensure that the surviving victims get an optimum response after an attack. Therefore, there should be a unit of research in Homeland security to gather all vital information to equip the first respondents with skills required to respond to attacks. Research is prior to learning on terrorists. Adequate research prevents even attacks that may be planned by the terrorists. Therefore, just like any other response agency, first respondents should have adequate knowledge of terrorists’ tactics. Security concern has become been a critical issue in the recent past. This has been due to increased attacks all over the world. Terrorists are endangering the lives of the people in all parts of the world (McCauley, and Moskalenko, 2008). The government has also declared war on terrorism and they will not negotiate with terrorists. Therefore, there should be enough effort to learn their tactics, their methods of attack to ensure that they do not succeed in their terrorism mission. At the turn of the century, especially at the beginning of this decade, in the context of the so-called The “post-Cold” world and the unfolding global “war on terrorism”, the attention of researchers is attracted by new dimensions of information security, revealed by such concepts as “information war”, “network war”, “cyber terrorism”, “cybercrime”. At the same time, the initiative in the study of these problems is gradually shifting from representatives of mainly humanitarian (philosophical, sociological, political science) disciplines to representatives of more specialized, applied and technical research areas, including experts representing the interests of the military, intelligence, law enforcement communities. The curiosity of first respondents should be known: they should like to read, preferring books about the divine and on historical topics. Nevertheless, in many instances, they do not like stories, believing that “everything is invented” there. Interest in them evokes tales as they meet their aspirations and hopes of victory, good over evil, the triumph of justice. 4. Some secondary attacks that may not necessarily involve explosives devices First, respondents should be aware of all attacks that may be used by terrorists. Since the terrorists may be aware that security agencies use detectives on explosives, they may opt other means rather than explosives. Terrorists in most cases want to gain media attention. Therefore, in many instances they credit crimes to them to intimidate the population. Therefore, the media should be reluctant to report on terrorist attacks. Moreover, their coverage on terrorist attacks should not cover all details of the causalities. Another attack tactics can be screams. Terrorists may set suicide bombers to scream to attract the attention of people around. This can be a strategy to gather people by attracting their attention before another explosive occur. Screaming may attract several people who may be interested to know what is happening to the person. First respondents hence should not be very fast to attend to people who may seem to real victims of an incidence but screaming at the scene. Terrorists may use chemical weapons in the site of crime. The chemical is usually corrosive with skin and may be used to harm the rescuers. Chemical weapons may also affect sight of the first respondents hence giving more time to have more causality. Therefore, there is need to check all possible scenes of chemicals and unknown substances in terrorist scenes to ensure safety of the population. 5. Battlefield engagements Battlefield engagement should be referred to when training first responders in the United States. Engaging first respondents in the battlefield during training gives them the real experience of an incidence that may happen. As first respondents, they should be aware that response to attacks has always accompanied humanity, and this tragic historical fact requires deep and comprehensive research. Analyses of the problems of human psychology in many studies have been devoted to terrorists’ attack. The complexity of relations between states, the severity of conflicts, and their unpredictability determine the growth of interest in military problems psychology, the need to comprehend the existing huge array accumulated in this field of knowledge and their use in the practical sphere to increase the psychological resources and combat readiness of first respondents. First respondents’ psychology as a special science and field of activity designed to study the behavior of people in extreme conditions when they can threaten injuries, injuries and even loss of life. In this regard, before researchers are faced with problems related to the study of psychological, the state of people in a combat situation, its course and ways to manage it, personal characteristics of fighters, psychological methods of influencing first respondents, and their preparation for combat activities. However, despite the difficulties of life, the first respondents in a scene are not cruel and not rude, but good-natured has a sense of humor that makes up their distinctive. It is inherent in the complete absence of any pose, or drawing; sacrificing by themselves, they do not think that they are performing a feat. There are no US soldiers heroes, but there are only people doing their duty, and doing it simply, “from the heart”, because they cannot do otherwise. However “that power is great, which does not recognize its greatness.” Three decades ago, the prospect of a global information society based on new information and communication technologies was perceived by most theorists with the technocratic optimism inherent in that time. Therefore, communication technology should be an essential integral in training first respondents. Part 2 1. Need for battlefield conditions be studied In all this, the new terrorism clearly differs from what we mean by this concept, in its variations and determinations from Norodnaia Volia to the eighties of the last century. We know that in its first appearance (that is, distinct from political murder. In addition, although these forms still exist today, they have nothing to do with what we continue to call Islamic terrorism, al-Qaeda. Before and after September 11, and which, instead, is the way of war after the war between nations or the civil war between ideologies, classes, etc., which takes on a strong value as a communicative factor, almost neurotransmitter of the perception of risk and vulnerability as seen in the twin towers episode. In this way, the traditionally understood battlefield ends up being “the milestone that indicates the turning point of events”. Its metamorphosis, on the other hand, its transformation into widespread terrorism becomes the milestone that foreshadows the era to come. The age in which the old war ended and a war without end began. In addition, it prefigures the new decisive opposition that exceeds that between typical nineteenth-century nations and that between ideologies typical of the twentieth century, placing two conceptions of the world, of life: two civilizations. Therefore, the United States is much vulnerable to combat-like attacks in this new era war. 2. How could law enforcement prepare itself against war-like conditions in the case of a large scale coordinated terrorist strike? Economic investments in security have increased enormously at the expense of other spending items in the public budgets of Western countries. In fact, for example, the budget of the new American ministry for security, the Department of Homeland Security, grew from 31 billion dollars in 2003 to 36 billion in 2004, while the demand for 2005 amounts to 40 billion (Nacos, 2005). In addition, the costs to protect private transactions increase enormously, questioning one of the cornerstones of modern-day capitalism according to Max Weber, namely the security of communication routes and the success of the business. The flow of world trade is thus altered and slowed down. Substantial resources are moved to the production of IT and technological security systems. Tourism and air transport are the areas where the crisis in recent years has been felt the most but also in the industrial sectors considered at risk. In short, stock markets, insurance, Economic chain effects have profoundly altered the economy of the West without our realizing it (Guolo, 2004). There is no further capitalist development, Weber argued, without widespread trust and collective security. However, the problem is precisely this, with our concept of war, has nothing to do and not even the terrorist has to do with the partisan who has a territory that defends against an invading army although fighting behind it. 3. Law enforcement Law enforcement at time requires armed officers for the masses to obey the law. However, people do not obey the law due to the presence of officers dressed in black tactical gear, Kevlar vests, helmets, boots, masks, and goggles and riding around in armored personnel carriers with rifles and submachine guns. In some countries where police brutality has been a matter of concern, more so in politically unstable countries, people continually violate laws. This is an indication that presence of officers is not an assurance to law abidance. A more comprehensive reflection on physical appearance to cub terrorism requires, however, a distinction between two levels: that of the motivations and beliefs that support martyrdom, on the one hand; and the strategy of terrorist organizations, on the other. In fact, the coincidence of these two elements of suicidal terrorism is not always confirmed: it can happen, for example, that the ideologies and religious beliefs that motivate the attackers differ from the instrumental use of their action for political ends by the leaders of the groups terrorists 4. Beefing up of physical security to ease terrorists attacks Beefing up physical security has assisted some countries to ease terrorist attacks. However, terrorist attacks are not like a normal war where you get to know your enemies. Terrorists use hit and run tactics hence making it very difficult to use physical security to ease their attacks. However, it is essential beefing up physical security. Fighting terrorism requires specialized equipment that is different from combat conventional warfare. The army should frequently be updated with the most complete perspectives of the conventional soldier who was once trained to fight a trench battle. Extensive measures should be taken to improve soldiers’ equipment for fighting indoors most efficient way. Equipment enhancement includes the provision of close combat weapons, body protection, light ballistic helmets, combat vests, improved and durable communication equipment, sight glasses nocturnal, short, and long-range mortars, and hunters. The military too should receive better quality pistols as a secondary weapon. Fighting terrorists requires specialized training, equipment and, most importantly, a comprehensive approach by relevant sectors of government, strategic level to tactical level, following a unique policy to achieve the common goal of defeating militancy. Reforms required both in the area of cognitive as well as physical (Schimtt, 2005), are more difficult to implement than expected due to multiple reasons such as lack of resources, lack of training appropriate, national level consensus, etc. The Armed Forces of Pakistan faced immense challenges in the beginning as they fought in extremely intense terrorism-related issues such as the defense against improvised explosive devices and suicide bombings. However, with the over time, armed forces have developed procedures operating standards, doctrine, and purchased adequate equipment that has proven be a powerful tool against a wide range of challenges. 5. Future attacks Most probably, the next terrorist attack in the United States will be from within. Terrorist are currently specializing in attacking areas they well know and that they have used adequate time to research. The terrorist acts attributable to the Islamic State (IS) present substantial differences with respect to the past; the recent analyzes on radicalization are trying to identify the salient elements of a mode of violent action in which phenomena such as martyrdom, foreign fighters and loose dogs have become common. This shows that we are no longer in the presence of only an organizational and centralized network more or less extensive. But of a system capable of activating individual initiatives stimulated by strong propaganda in favor of radicalization that has the main distribution channel in the web (and in prisons), rather than in mosques. In this way, today’s terrorist phenomenon becomes an even more difficult enemy to defeat, more and more unpredictable and potentially present everywhere. A new actor (the foreign fighters) has enriched the galaxy of jihadist radicalization, already multifaceted and differentiated, making the reconstruction of the paths to establish a radicalized identity even more complicated. Currently, there are two interpretations that dominate the scientific debate on the subject: the culturalist explanation, which insists on the war of civilization and the impossibility of integration. The Third Worldist one takes up the theme of the structural frustration of the descendants (second, but also third and fourth generations) of migrants in United States.
References Guolo R. (2000), Is Islam compatible with Democracy?, Bari, Laterza. McCauley, C., & Moskalenko S. (2008). Mechanisms of political radicalization: Pathways toward terrorism, “Terrorism and Political Violence”, 20, pp. 415-433. Nacos BL (2005), Terrorism and Counterterrorism, New York, Pearson Longman. Schimtt C. (2005). Partisan Theory, Milan, Adelphi.