Education and Conflict




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Education and Conflict

Education and conflict have a long and complex relationship. Education has been linked to conflict for centuries, and although it can promote peace, it can also be a source of tension and conflict. In many cases, education can be used as a tool for social control, as governments use education to shape public opinion and foster loyalty to their ideologies (Pherali, 2019). Historically, education has been used to reinforce discrimination and inequality by privileging certain groups and excluding others, leading to feelings of alienation, frustration, and anger among excluded people, potentially leading to conflict P/V

At the same time, education can be a powerful tool for peace and conflict resolution. Education can provide individuals with the knowledge and skills to understand and appreciate different perspectives, which can help to build mutual understanding and respect between conflicting groups. It can also help to promote values such as democracy, human rights, and tolerance, which are essential for peace. Education also plays a role in post-conflict reconciliation, as it can help heal the psychological wounds of war (Novelli et al., 2019). Education can be used to teach individuals about the importance of forgiveness and reconciliation and to help to bridge divides between different communities.

In addition, education can help foster economic development, which is essential in reducing the likelihood of conflict. Education can help to equip individuals with the skills they need to participate in the economy and can help to promote economic growth and stability, which can reduce the potential for conflict. Finally, education can help to empower individuals, which can be an essential factor in preventing conflict (Enebi et al., 2021). By providing individuals with knowledge and skills, education can help to equip them with the tools to make their own decisions, challenge injustice, and resist oppression, which can reduce the likelihood of conflict. Education can play a decisive role in promoting peace and resolving conflict. It can provide individuals with the knowledge and skills they need to understand and appreciate different perspectives, promote values such as democracy and human rights, and foster economic development (Davies, 2021). It can also help to empower individuals and reduce the potential for conflict.

How Racism in Education Brings Conflict

Racism in education is an endemic problem that has been present in the United States since its founding. Racism in education has created a cycle of inequality and conflict, making it difficult for people of color to succeed and achieve their full potential. Racism in education directly impacts the experiences of students of color, leading to lower academic achievement and a lack of access to educational opportunities (Marchais et al., 2021). Furthermore, racism in education has been used to maintain White supremacy, a system of institutionalized power that privileges White people and disadvantages people of color.

Racism in education affects many aspects of the educational experience, from curriculum to school policies. Studies have found that students of color often experience a curriculum that is Eurocentric and does not reflect the diversity of cultures in the United States. Furthermore, students of color are more likely to be punished for minor infractions, such as dress code violations or tardiness, than White students (Marchais et al., 2021). These disparities in discipline create a hostile learning environment for students of color and create the perception that they are not valued.

The effects of racism in education can be seen in the achievement gap between White students and students of color. This gap results from students of color not receiving the same educational opportunities as White students. Studies have found that students of color are less likely to enroll in advanced courses, have fewer resources available, and have lower teacher expectations. These disparities lead to lower academic performance and a lack of access to college and other post-secondary opportunities. The impact of racism in education extends beyond the classroom and can be seen in the broader society (Irkinovna, 2021). Racism in education contributes to the economic and social disparities between White people and people of color. It also perpetuates systemic racism, which prevents people of color from achieving social and economic mobility.

Racism in education creates a cycle of inequality and conflict that affects students of color and the broader society. People must address this problem to create a more equitable and inclusive educational system. People must ensure that students of color have access to the same educational opportunities as White students and that the curriculum reflects the diversity of cultures in the United States. People must also create policies that promote equity and challenge systemic racism. Only then can we create a more just and equitable education system. Article Error (ETS Furthermore, racism in education often leads to tension between students of color and White students (Bashori et al., 2022). This tension can lead to a hostile learning environment, making it difficult for students of color to feel safe and respected.

The aspect of Development Co-operation

Cooperation in education in conflict-affected situations is critical for immediate and long- term stability. Conflict can have a debilitating and long-lasting effect on society, and education is a critical tool to support and promote recovery in these contexts. Development cooperation plays a vital role in providing access to quality education for those affected by conflict and promoting peacebuilding and reconciliation efforts. Sp. (ETS

Development cooperation aims to support access to education, improve the quality of education, promote peacebuilding and reconciliation, and support research and advocacy related Sp. ETS to education in conflict-affected situations. This can involve providing resources such as equipment, supplies, and materials; delivering training and capacity building to teachers, school administrators, and other educational personnel; and supporting infrastructure development, such as the construction of new schools (Bashori et al., 2022). Development cooperation can also provide technical assistance and direct support for curriculum development, policy-making, and improving educational systems in conflict-affected contexts.

In addition, development cooperation can provide crucial resources to support initiatives that promote peacebuilding and reconciliation in conflict-affected contexts, which includes Sp. (ETS providing resources to support programs that work to create an environment of tolerance and respect for cultural and religious diversity, as well as initiatives that build the capacity of Confused TS communities to respond to and prevent conflict (Irkinovna, 2021). Such initiatives can help to create a more secure environment, which is essential for providing access to quality education and promoting peacebuilding and reconciliation.

Development cooperation also plays a vital role in supporting research and advocacy related to education in conflict-affected contexts, which includes research to understand the effects of conflict on education and identify and document best practices for providing access to Article Error s quality education in these contexts (Marchais et al., 2021). It also includes supporting advocacy efforts to raise awareness of the importance of education in conflict-affected contexts and advocating for increased resources to support education in these contexts. Development cooperation is essential in providing access to quality education and promoting peacebuilding and reconciliation in conflict-affected contexts (Davies, 2021). By providing resources and capacity building, as well as supporting research and advocacy efforts, development cooperation can make a tangible difference in the lives of those affected by conflict.

Two Faces of Education

The Two Faces of Education, as proposed by Bush and Saltarelli (2000), is the idea that education is both a public and a private good. As a public good, education contributes to the development of civil society, providing citizens with the knowledge, skills, and values for effective and responsible participation in their communities. As a private good, education Article Error (ETS provides individuals with the opportunity to gain economic advantage, personal fulfillment, and social mobility (Enebi et al., 2021). Education, then, is both a public and a private asset. Public education systems are crucial for advancing social equity and fostering economic development, while private education can help individuals attain their personal and career goals.

Bush and Saltarelli argue that these two faces of education should be addressed in tandem; policymakers should be aware of both the public and private benefits of education and should strive to ensure that both are served. They suggest that policymakers should seek to provide equitable access to educational resources for all members of society, regardless of their income levels or social backgrounds (Irkinovna, 2021). Additionally, policymakers should strive to ensure that individuals have access to the resources and support necessary to maximize their educational opportunities and pursue their personal goals. The Two Faces of Education offers a helpful framework for understanding the complex relationship between public education and private economic advancement. By recognizing the public and private benefits of education and striving to ensure that all members of society have equitable access to educational resources, policymakers can help create a more just and equitable society.

Education in Afghanistan

Education is a vital part of a nation’s development, as it helps to define a nation’s potential. It can be argued that it is a unifier of nations, as it brings together individuals of Confused different backgrounds and beliefs. As such, it is crucial to understand the issues that can arise when education is impaired due to violent conflict, particularly in Afghanistan (Enebi et al., 2021). The subtopics below will critically examine the issues concerning education and violent conflict in Afghanistan, with a particular focus on the impact of the conflict on children’s access to education, the role of the Taliban in disrupting education, and the efforts of the government to Article Error improve the situation.

Impact of the Conflict on Children’s Access to Education

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Afghanistan’s conflict has significantly impacted children’s access to education, particularly in rural and conflict-affected areas. According to a 2016 report, approximately 3.7 million children in Afghanistan are currently out of school, most girls, due to various factors, including poverty, insecurity, traditional views on gender roles, and lack of access to quality education (Pherali, 2019). The conflict has also significantly impacted the quality of education, as many schools have been damaged or destroyed in the fighting. Furthermore, the lack of security has led to teachers and students being targeted by the Taliban, making it difficult for Article Error them attend school, which has had a significant impact on the education system, with the Verb Ers number of teachers and students decreasing significantly since the conflict began P/V (ETS

The Role of the Taliban in Disrupting Education

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The Taliban has played a significant role in disrupting education in Afghanistan. The group has targeted schools, teachers, and students to control education and promote its interpretation of Islamic teachings. The Taliban has also imposed strict restrictions on girls’ Article Error access to education, as they believe it is inappropriate for them to attend school or learn specific subjects (Davies, 2021). Furthermore, the Taliban has used violence and intimidation to prevent Article Error people from attending school and has enforced its curriculum in some areas, which has significantly impacted the quality of education available in the country, as many schools have been forced to teach a biased version of history and religion.

Efforts of the Government to Improve the Situation

In response to the situation, the Afghan government has attempted to improve access to education in the country. In 2004, the Afghan government introduced a new education policy to expand access to education and improve available education quality. The government has also launched several initiatives to improve the security of schools and students (Novelli et al., 2019). These initiatives include providing additional security personnel to guard schools, establishing safe zones for students, and introducing a program to train teachers and students in conflict resolution.

The government has also increased its spending on education, with an estimated $1.2 billion allocated to the sector in 2020. However, the conflict has made it challenging to implement these initiatives, as security concerns have forced many schools to close, and the Article 9

Taliban continues to target schools and teachers. Conflict in Afghanistan has significantly impacted education, with millions of children deprived of quality education (Marchais et al., 2021). The Taliban has played a significant role in disrupting education, while the Afghan Article Error (ETS government has made some attempts to improve the situation. However, the conflict has made it challenging to implement these initiatives, and the situation will likely remain complex shortly.

Theories and approaches in Education and Conflict

  1. Social Constructivism: This theory posits that individuals learn through interactions with others and that this process socially constructs knowledge.
  2. Critical Pedagogy: A pedagogical approach that encourages students to question existing power dynamics and to think critically about their learning.
  3. Peace Education: A form of education that promotes peace, justice, and non-violent conflict resolution.
  4. Conflict Transformation: Transforming intractable conflicts into more constructive and cooperative relationships.






Bashori, B., Komariah, N., Nurlailisna, N., Habibi, S., & Istikomah, I. (2022). Conflict Management of Islamic Education Institutions in Indonesia: A Literature Review. Jurnal Pendidikan Progresif, 12(2), 487–499.

Davies, L. (2021). The edge of chaos: Explorations in education and conflict. In Third International Handbook of Globalisation, Education and Policy Research (pp. 339–351). Springer.

Enebi, A. A., Akong, O. P., & John, O. O. (2021). The Role of Peace Education in Conflict Resolution in Lagos, NIGERIA. HALLMARK UNIVERSITY, 180.

Irkinovna, A. E. (2021). EDUCATION OF HIGH-LEVEL YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE FAMILY AND INTER-FLOW CONFLICT. Oriental Renaissance: Innovative, Educational, Natural and Social Sciences, 1(4), 1072-1075.

Marchais, G., Gupta, S., Brandt, C., Justino, P., Leone, M., Lulego, E. K., Mashingo, O. L. K., Kiemtoré, I., Marion, P., & Christian, P. B. (2021). Marginalisation from Education in Conflict- Affected Contexts: Learning from Tanganyika and Ituri in the DR Congo.

Novelli, M., Lopes Cardozo, M., & Smith, A. (2019). The ‘4 Rs’ as a tool for critical policy analysis of the education sector in conflict affected states. Education and Conflict Review, 2, 70- 75.

Pherali, T. (2019). Theories and conceptual frameworks in education, confict and peacebuilding. Education and Conflict Review, 2.

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