The communities from the Latino people, including the Mexicans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans consider families as an essential part of their existence. Familism is highly practiced among people from these three communities. Most of the people derive confidence from the level of bond within their families. The communal living also brings the members of the community close to each other that they consult each other before making important life decisions. Therefore, before taking the advice/instructions from a clinician, the members of these communities consult each other.
Cuban Case Study
The Cuban communication pattern of benefit is the need to make them trust you. As a health care worker, I need to greet them by hand or even hugs during the visits to win their trust and subsequently work with Hernandez. This is due to the culture of personalism common among the Cubans.
Cuban traditional meals commonly contain some meat and especially pork prepared in different ways ranging from roast to fries. Other traditional meals contain beans for their protein. To assist Mrs. Hernandez would entail the plan to reduce on the meats and prepare more beans for their proteins. Since the families eat together traditionally, the rest of the family can be included in the plan to make it easier for Mrs. Hernandez.
I would not encourage her to get herbs for her treatment. The strong bond and value of familism can be used as an opportunity to persuade her to take the prescribed oral hypoglycemic. Encouraging her daughter who had convinced her the medical check up to also encourage and ensure her mother takes her prescription drugs and not herbs.
The traditional practice that is common among Cubans in maintaining health is the use of herbs for the treatment of diverse ailments. The use of herbs is so prevalent that the government of Cuba has incorporated alternative herbal medicine alongside conventional medicine. The rampant use of herbs might have informed the reason behind Hernandez’s inclination towards herbal medicine for her ailments.
Time orientation for Mrs. Hernandez is a factor to be considered in planning clinic follow-up visits. The visits should be placed either the mid-morning or afternoon when she is not cooking or has to get the grandchildren. The secure attachment to the family may lead her to choose family over hospital visits when there is a clash in time.
The chronic nature of Mrs. Hernandez’s illness warrants a thorough education on health care. Considering the husband died of cardiovascular disease, and the children are also plump according, the more they need for education. The first goal is to help the family understand and appreciate the need for controlling body weight within a healthy BMI. Secondly, helping the family relate and understand how physical exercise improves cardiovascular function and prevents related diseases. Finally, the third goal is to help the family understand the risk of using any poorly understood herbs in the treatment of any illness (Suárez, 2017). Achieving the third goal in a culture-sensitive manner will be an important step in the treatment of Hernandez.
In a typical Cuban home, the family is mainly headed by the man who makes major decisions for the household and works to provide for the family. According to machismo culture, the man is the primary provider and protector of the family. When it comes to taking care of children and the home, the woman is responsible (Lindsey, 2018). There are also many instances where relatives from the extended family cooperatively stay in the same house.
Cuban Americans are more prone to lifestyle-related diseases. The three common health problems are cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type II diabetes mellitus (Suárez, 2017). The prevalence of these diseases is higher among Cuban Americans than the Cubans in Cuba.
Given the opportunity of being a health education specialist, I would teach my staff to focus on developing a collaborative partnership with the Cubans to win their trust (Shen, 2015). Shaking of hands and warm relationships with the Cubans helps them to open up; otherwise, they may not take hospital visits seriously (Shen, 2015).
Caring for children among Cubans is mainly done by the women who are with the children most of the time. The Cuban culture generally practices tough love in guiding their children through their culture. Cuban parents also use the reward-punishment way of bringing up their children (Suárez, 2017). However, when it comes to punishments, they offer many threats but do not actualize them.

Mexican Case Study
Dona Reyna is a traditional healer with skills and understanding in the use of herbs and other traditional methods in caring for the sick. Her practice could be termed as being part of ethnomedicine.
When the nurse comes to the home of Mr. and Mrs. Sanchez, the two should be present here from the nurse. Since Dona has no problem with western medicine, she will receive the education well and apply whatever she learns. The children may not be included in the setting where the father will be receiving the training since Mr. Sanchez may not want them to see him when in weakness.
The Sanchez family is one that has much inclination to familism. The family means a lot to them including the extended family that they easily allow into their home. As such, much effort and energy are used to keep the family together and making sure they transfer the traditions to their children (Lindsey, 2018). It explains the reason Mrs. Sanchez is committed to ensuring they are cared for in all aspects.
The general American population has always viewed the Mexican Americans as being low resource population living in poverty. The description of the Sanchez family also gives a picture of a family with limited resources. The other concerns the family roles in as it is also evident from the case that only the men work to provide for the family. The work that Mrs. Sanchez used to do was not considered as being significant to provide for the family.
Religion is held firmly by the Sanchez family. The religiosity is mainly seen through Mrs. Sanchez, who has affiliations to the church and also is keen to ensure that she takes care of the spiritual needs of the family. Also, most of the traditional healers are inclined to beliefs and prayers, qualifying the point that Mrs. Sanchez must be strongly religious.
Caring for Mr. Sanchez requires sensitivity to his culture and beliefs to optimize patient outcomes and satisfaction. The first assessment is trying to understand the behaviors considered as taboos in their family to avoid them. Secondly, understanding nonverbal cues and how they express themselves to avoid misunderstandings. Thirdly, an assessment of religious beliefs and inclination of the family will help relate to the family.
The strategies for the assessment and treatment for the family will include partnership and collaboration with the family. The collaboration will enhance the participation of the family in treatment leading to better outcomes (Shen, 2015). Secondly, the empowerment of the family members in understanding the illness will help provide the family with opportunities for making informed decisions.
Osteomyelitis would be described as a cold disease alongside disorders such as arthritis. In the hot-cold theory of illness, the disease is mainly due to imbalances of the two different humors. Therefore, osteomyelitis being cold, it will be treated with hot herbs and foods. Mr. Sanchez may benefit from hot herbal tea, among other hot foods and herbs.
Mexican Americans have a higher risk and burden for chronic health problems such as HIV/AIDS, obesity, asthma/COPD, and higher suicide rates (Suárez, 2017). Compared to other populations in the U.S., Mexican Americans have higher risks of the mentioned health problems.
The Mexicans living in the U.S. appreciate the concept of familism and hold on to it. The culture leads to higher bonds amongst the members of the community and also acts as a way of protection. The community being part of the minority groups find safety in numbers and togetherness since some of the Mexicans also lack adequate documentation.
Folk treatment option may not be one that is specific for the osteomyelitis but one that is generally for bone disorders. The folk treatments involve the use of herbs mainly applied to the affected limb and some other herbs taken per oral. The herbs prescribed will be from the group of hot herbs to manage the cold osteomyelitis.

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