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What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important?
Definition:        Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret
                        their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their
Why is this important to the study of OB?
  • Because people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.
A.    Factors Influencing Perception
1.     Factors that shape and can distort perception (Exhibit 5-1):
·         Perceiver
·         Target
·         Situation
2.     When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she sees, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver.
3.     The more relevant personal characteristics affecting perception of the perceiver are attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations.
4.     Characteristics of the target can also affect what is being perceived.  This would include attractiveness, gregariousness, and our tendency to group similar things together.  For example, members of a group with clearly distinguishable features or color are often perceived as alike in other, unrelated characteristics as well.
5.     The context in which we see objects or events also influences our attention.  This could include time, heat, light, or other situational factors.
Person Perception: Making Judgments about Others
B.    Attribution Theory  (Exhibit 5-2)
1.   Our perceptions of people differ from our perceptions of inanimate objects.
·         We make inferences about the actions of people that we do not make about inanimate objects.
·         Nonliving objects are subject to the laws of nature.
·         People have beliefs, motives, or intentions.
2.   Our perception and judgment of a person’s actions are influenced by these assumptions.
3.   Attribution theory suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused. That determination depends largely on three factors:
·         Distinctiveness
·         Consensus
·         Consistency
4.  Clarification of the differences between internal and external causation:
·         Internally caused behaviors are those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual.
·         Externally caused behavior is seen as resulting from outside causes; that is, the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation.
5.   Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations. What we want to know is whether the observed behavior is unusual.
·         If it is, the observer is likely to give the behavior an external attribution.
·         If this action is not unusual, it will probably be judged as internal.
6.   Consensus occurs if everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way.  If consensus is high, you would be expected to give an external attribution to the employee’s tardiness, whereas if other employees who took the same route made it to work on time, your conclusion as to causation would be internal.
7.   Consistency in a person’s actions. Does the person respond the same way over time? The more consistent the behavior, the more the observer is inclined to attribute it to internal causes.
8.   Fundamental Attribution Error
·         There is substantial evidence that we have a tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors.
·         There is also a tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors such as ability or effort while putting the blame for failure on external factors such as luck. This is called the “self-serving bias” and suggests that feedback provided to employees will be distorted by recipients.
9.   Are these errors or biases that distort attribution universal across different cultures? While there is no definitive answer there is some preliminary evidence that indicates cultural differences:
·         Korean managers found that, contrary to the self-serving bias, they tended to accept responsibility for group failure.
·         Attribution theory was developed largely based on experiments with Americans and Western Europeans.
·         The Korean study suggests caution in making attribution theory predictions in non-Western societies, especially in countries with strong collectivist traditions.
C.    Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others
1.   We use a number of shortcuts when we judge others. An understanding of these shortcuts can be helpful toward recognizing when they can result in significant distortions.
2.   Selective Perception
·         Any characteristic that makes a person, object, or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived.
·         Since we can’t observe everything going on about us, we engage in selective perception.
·         A classic example:
a.   Dearborn and Simon performed a perceptual study in which 23 business executives read a comprehensive case describing the organization and activities of a steel company.
b.   The results along with other results of the study, led the researchers to conclude that the participants perceived aspects of a situation that were specifically related to the activities and goals of the unit to which they were attached.
c.   A group’s perception of organizational activities is selectively altered to align with the vested interests they represent.
3.   Halo Effect
·         The halo effect occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic:
a.   This phenomenon frequently occurs when students appraise their classroom instructor. 
b.   Propensity for halo effect to operate is not random. 
·         The reality of the halo effect was confirmed in a classic study.
a.   Subjects were given a list of traits such as intelligent, skillful, practical, industrious, determined, and warm, and were asked to evaluate the person to whom those traits applied.  When the word “warm” was substituted with “cold” the subjects changed their evaluation of the person.
b.   The experiment showed that subjects were allowing a single trait to influence their overall impression of the person being judged.
c.   Research suggests that it is likely to be most extreme when the traits to be perceived are ambiguous in behavioral terms, when the traits have moral overtones, and when the perceiver is judging traits with which he or she has had limited experience.
4.   Contrast Effects
·         We do not evaluate a person in isolation. Our reaction to one person is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered.
·         For example, an interview situation in which one sees a pool of job applicants can distort perception.  Distortions in any given candidate’s evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interview schedule.
5.   Projection
·         This tendency to attribute one’s own characteristics to other people—which is called projection—can distort perceptions made about others.
·         When managers engage in projection, they compromise their ability to respond to individual differences. They tend to see people as more homogeneous than they really are.
6.     Stereotyping
·         Stereotyping—judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs
·         Generalization is not without advantages. It is a means of simplifying a complex world, and it permits us to maintain consistency. The problem, of course, is when we inaccurately stereotype.
·         In organizations, we frequently hear comments that represent stereotypes based on gender, age, race, ethnicity, and even weight.
·         From a perceptual standpoint, if people expect to see these stereotypes, that is what they will perceive, whether or not they are accurate.
D.   Specific Applications in Organizations
1.   Employment Interview
·         Evidence indicates that interviewers make perceptual judgments that are often inaccurate.
·         In addition, agreement among interviewers is often poor. Different interviewers see different things in the same candidate and thus arrive at different conclusions about the applicant.
·         Interviewers generally draw early impressions that become very quickly entrenched. Studies indicate that most interviewers’ decisions change very little after the first four or five minutes of the interview.
·         Because interviews usually have so little consistent structure and interviewers vary in terms of what they are looking for in a candidate, judgments of the same candidate can vary widely.
2.   Performance Expectations
·         Evidence demonstrates that people will attempt to validate their perceptions of reality, even when those perceptions are faulty.
·         Self-fulfilling prophecy or Pygmalion effect characterizes the fact that people’s expectations determine their behavior. Expectations become reality.
·         A study was undertaken with 105 soldiers in the Israeli Defense Forces who were taking a fifteen-week combat command course.  Soldiers were randomly divided and identified as having high potential, normal potential, and potential not known. Instructors got better results from the high potential group because they expected it confirming the effect of a self-fulfilling prophecy.
3.     Ethnic Profiling
·         Form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled out on the basis of race or ethnicity.
·         The Internment of Americans of Japanese heritage following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor is an example.
·         Since 9/11, ethnic profiling has increased implications for OB. 
Suspiciousness surrounds co-workers and managers relative to people of Arab ancestry.
·         Much debate surrounds this issue. It centers on the need to balance the rights of individuals against the greater good of society.
4.    Performance Evaluation
·         An employee’s performance appraisal is very much dependent on the perceptual process.
·         Although the appraisal can be objective, many jobs are evaluated in subjective terms. Subjective measures are, by definition, judgmental.
·         To the degree that managers use subjective measures in appraising employees, what the evaluator perceives to be good or bad employee characteristics or behaviors will significantly influence the outcome of the appraisal.
5.   Employee Effort
·         An individual’s future in an organization is usually not dependent on performance alone. An assessment of an individual’s effort is a subjective judgment susceptible to perceptual distortions and bias.
The Link between Perception and Individual Decision Making
1.   Individuals in organizations make decisions; they make choices from among two or more alternatives.
·         Top managers determine their organization’s goals, what products or services to offer, how best to finance operations, or where to locate a new manufacturing plant.
·         Middle- and lower-level managers determine production schedules, select new employees, and decide how pay raises are to be allocated.
·         Non-managerial employees also make decisions including whether or not to come to work on any given day, how much effort to put forward once at work, and whether or not to comply with a request made by the boss.
·         A number of organizations in recent years have been empowering their non-managerial employees with job-related decision-making authority that historically was reserved for managers.
2.   Decision-making occurs as a reaction to a problem.
·         There is a discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state, requiring consideration of alternative courses of action.
·         On person’s problem is another’s satisfactory state of affairs.
3.   Every decision requires interpretation and evaluation of information. The perceptions of the decision maker will address these two issues.
·         Data are typically received from multiple sources.
·         Which data are relevant to the decision and which are not?
·         Alternatives will be developed, and the strengths and weaknesses of each will need to be evaluated.
How Should Decisions Be Made?
A.    The Rational Decision-Making Process
1.   The optimizing decision maker is rational. He or she makes consistent, value-maximizing choices within specified constraints.
2.   The Rational Model—six steps listed in Exhibit 5-3
3.   Step 1:  Defining the problem
·         A problem is a discrepancy between an existing and a desired state of affairs.
·         Many poor decisions can be traced to the decision maker overlooking a problem or defining the wrong problem.
4.   Step 2:  Identify the decision criteria important to solving the problem.
·         The decision maker determines what is relevant in making the decision. Any factors not identified in this step are considered irrelevant.
·         This brings in the decision maker’s interests, values, and similar personal preferences.
5.   Step 3:  Weight the previously identified criteria in order to give them the correct priority in the decision.
6.   Step 4:  Generate possible alternatives that could succeed in resolving the problem.
7.   Step 5: Rate each alternative on each criterion.
·         Critically analyze and evaluate each alternative.
·         The strengths and weaknesses of each alternative become evident as they are compared with the criteria and weights established in the second and third steps.
8.   Step 6:  The final step is to compute the optimal decision:
·         Evaluate each alternative against the weighted criteria and selecting the alternative with the highest total score.
9.   Assumptions of the Model
·         Problem clarity. The decision maker is assumed to have complete information regarding the decision situation.
·         Known options. It is assumed the decision maker is aware of all the possible consequences of each alternative.
·         Clear preferences. Criteria and alternatives can be ranked and weighted to reflect their importance.
·         Constant preferences. Specific decision criteria are constant and the weights assigned to them are stable over time.
·         No time or cost constraints. The rational decision maker can obtain full information about criteria and alternatives because it is assumed that there are no time or cost constraints.
·         Maximum payoff. The rational decision maker will choose the alternative that yields the highest perceived value.
B.    Improving Creativity in Decision Making
Definition:  Creativity is the ability to produce novel and useful ideas.  These are ideas that are different from what has been done before, but that are also appropriate to the problem or opportunity presented.
1.       Creative Potential
·         Most people have creative potential.
·         People have to get out of the psychological ruts most of us get into and learn how to think about a problem in divergent ways.
2.       People differ in their inherent creativity.
·         A study of lifetime creativity of 461 men and women found that less than one percent were exceptionally creative.
·         10% were highly creative, about sixty percent were somewhat creative.
3.       Three-component model of creativity.  This model proposes that individual creativity essentially requires expertise, creative-thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation.  (See Exhibit 5-4.)
·         Expertise is the foundation for all creative work. The potential for creativity is enhanced when individuals have abilities, knowledge, proficiencies, and similar expertise in their field of endeavor.
·         Creative thinking skills. This encompasses personality characteristics associated with creativity, the ability to use analogies, as well as the talent to see the familiar in a different light.
·         Intrinsic task motivation. The desire to work on something because it’s interesting, involving, exciting, satisfying, or personally challenging. This turns creativity potential into actual creative ideas. It determines the extent to which individuals fully engage their expertise and creative skills.
How Are Decisions Actually Made in Organizations?
1.   Are decision makers in organizations rational?
·         When decision makers are faced with a simple problem having few alternative courses of action, and when the cost of searching out and evaluating alternatives is low, the rational model is fairly accurate.
2.   Most decisions in the real world do not follow the rational model.
·         Decision makers generally make limited use of their creativity.
·         Choices tend to be confined to the neighborhood of the problem symptom and to the neighborhood of the current alternative.
A.   Bounded Rationality
1.   When faced with a complex problem, most people respond by reducing the problem to a level at which it can be readily understood.
·         This is because the limited information-processing capability of human beings makes it impossible to assimilate and understand all the information necessary to optimize.
·         People satisfice—they seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient.
2.   Individuals operate within the confines of bounded rationality. They construct simplified models that extract the essential features.
3.   How does bounded rationality work?
·         Once a problem is identified, the search for criteria and alternatives begins.
·         The decision maker will identify a limited list made up of the more conspicuous choices, which are easy to find, tend to be highly visible, and they will represent familiar criteria and previously tried-and-true solutions.
·         Once this limited set of alternatives is identified, the decision maker will begin reviewing it.
a.   The decision maker will begin with alternatives that differ only in a relatively small degree from the choice currently in effect.
b.  The first alternative that meets the “good enough” criterion ends the search.
·         The order in which alternatives are considered is critical in determining which alternative is selected.
·         Assuming that a problem has more than one potential solution, the satisficing choice will be the first acceptable one the decision maker encounters.
·         Alternatives that depart the least from the status quo are the most likely to be selected.
B.   Common Biases and Errors
1.   Decision makers allow systematic biases and errors to creep into their judgments.
·         People tend to rely on experience, impulses, gut feelings and rules of thumb.  These can lead to distortions.
2.     Overconfidence Bias
·         Individuals whose intellectual and interpersonal abilities are weakest are most likely to overestimate their performance and ability.
·         The more knowledgeable, the less likely to display overconfidence.
3.     Anchoring Bias
·         Fixating on initial information as a starting point and failing to adequately adjust for subsequent information.
·         Anchors are widely used by people in advertising, management, politics, real estate, and lawyers—where persuasion skills are important.
4.     Confirmation Bias
·         Type of selective perception.  Seek out information that reaffirms past
choices, and discount information that contradicts past judgments.
5.     Availability Bias
·         Tendency for people to base judgments on information that is readily available.
6.     Representative Bias
·         Assess the likelihood of an occurrence by trying to match it with a preexisting category.
7.     Escalation of Commitment Error
·         Staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence that it’s wrong.
8.     Randomness Error
·         Decision making becomes impaired when we try to create meaning out of random events.
9.     Hindsight Bias
·         Tendency to believe falsely that one has accurately predicted the outcome of an event, after that outcome is actually known.
C.     Intuition
1.   Intuitive decision-making has recently come out of the closet and into some respectability.
2.   What is intuitive decision making?
·         It is an unconscious process created out of distilled experience.  It operates in complement with rational analysis.
·         Some consider it a form of extrasensory power or sixth sense.
·         Some believe it is a personality trait that a limited number of people are born with.
3.   Research on chess playing provides an excellent example of how intuition works.
·         The expert’s experience allows him or her to recognize the pattern in a situation and draw upon previously learned information associated with that pattern to quickly arrive at a decision choice.
·         The result is that the intuitive decision maker can decide rapidly with what appears to be very limited information.
·         Eight conditions when people are most likely to use intuitive decision making:
a.   when a high level of uncertainty exists
b.   when there is little precedent to draw on
c.   when variables are less scientifically predictable
c.     when “facts” are limited
e.   when facts do not clearly point the way to go
f.    when analytical data are of little use
g.   when there are several plausible alternative solutions to choose from, with good arguments for each
h.   when time is limited, and there is pressure to come up with the right decision
·         Although intuitive decision making has gained in respectability, don’t expect people—especially in North America, Great Britain, and other cultures where rational analysis is the approved way of making decisions—to acknowledge they are using it.  Rational analysis is considered more socially desirable in these cultures.
1.   What is intuition?  Was the commander using intuition or utilizing his experience and training, or both?
2.   Have there been times when you needed to make a decision quickly?  Was it intuition, a reaction, or something else?  (For example, avoiding hitting another car, during a sports match, etc.)  What resources do you think you used when making that decision?
3.   Do you use a decision making process when making a “big” decision in your life?  (For example, when buying a car, selecting a roommate, etc.)  Why or why not?  Have you made a decision recently that you could have done better had you used a formal decision making process?
D.    Individual Differences
1.   Research on decision styles has identified four different individual approaches to making decisions.
2.   People differ along two dimensions. The first is their way of thinking.
·         Some people are logical and rational. They process information serially.
·         Some people are intuitive and creative. They perceive things as a whole.
3.   The other dimension is a person’s tolerance for ambiguity
·         Some people have a high need to minimize ambiguity.
·         Others are able to process many thoughts at the same time.
4.   These two dimensions, diagrammed, form four styles of decision making. (See Exhibit 5-5.)
·         Directive:
a.   Low tolerance for ambiguity and seek rationality
b.   Efficient and logical
c.   Decisions are made with minimal information and with few alternatives assessed.
d.   Make decisions fast and focus on the short-run.
·         Analytic
a.   Greater tolerance for ambiguity
b.   Desire for more information and consideration of more alternatives
c.   Best characterized as careful decision makers with the ability to adapt
·         Conceptual
a.   Tend to be very broad in their outlook and consider many alternatives
b.   Their focus is long range, and they are very good at finding creative solutions to problems.
·         Behavioral
a.   Characterizes decision makers who work well with others
b.   Concerned with the achievement of peers and subordinates and are receptive to suggestions from others, relying heavily on meetings for communicating
c.   Tries to avoid conflict and seeks acceptance
 5.  Most managers have characteristics that fall into more than one. It is best to think in terms of a manager’s dominant style and his or her backup styles.
·         Business students, lower-level managers, and top executives tend to score highest in the analytic style.
·         Focusing on decision styles can be useful for helping you to understand
·         How two equally intelligent people, with access to the same information, can differ in the ways they approach decisions and the final choices they make.
E.    Gender
1.    Evidence indicates that women analyze decisions more than men.
2.     Rumination refers to reflecting at length.  In decision making it means over thinking about problems.
3.     Women, in general, are more likely than men to engage in rumination.
4.     Rumination tendency appears to be moderated by age.  Differences are largest during young adulthood and smallest after age 65. 
F.    Organizational Constraints
1.   The organization itself constrains decision makers. This happens due to policies, regulations, time constraints, etc. 
2.   Performance evaluation
·         Managers are strongly influenced in their decision making by the criteria by which they are evaluated.  Their performance in decision making will reflect expectation.
3.   Reward systems
·         The organization’s reward system influences decision makers by suggesting to them what choices are preferable in terms of personal payoff.
4.       Formal Regulations
·         Organizations create rules, policies, procedures, and other formalized regulations to standardize the behavior of their members.
5.   System-imposed time constraints
·         Organizations impose deadlines on decisions.
·         Decisions must be made quickly in order to stay ahead of the competition and keep customers satisfied.
·         Almost all important decisions come with explicit deadlines.
6.   Historical Precedents
·         Decisions have a context. Individual decisions are more accurately characterized as points in a stream of decisions.
·         Decisions made in the past are ghosts, which continually haunt current choices. It is common knowledge that the largest determining factor of the
       size of any given year’s budget is last year’s budget.
G.    Cultural Differences
1.   The rational model makes no acknowledgment of cultural differences. We need to recognize that the cultural background of the decision maker can have significant influence on:
a.       selection of problems
b.   depth of analysis
c.   the importance placed on logic and rationality
d.   whether organizational decisions should be made autocratically by an individual manager or collectively in groups
2.   Cultures, for example, differ in terms of time orientation, the importance of rationality, their belief in the ability of people to solve problems, and preference for collective decision making.
·         Some cultures emphasize solving problems, while others focus on accepting situations as they are.
·         Decision making by Japanese managers is much more group-oriented than in the United States.
What about Ethics in Decision Making?
Ethical considerations should be an important criterion in organizational decision making.
A.    Three Ethical Decision Criteria
1.   Utilitarian criterion—decisions are made solely on the basis of their outcomes 
      or consequences.  The goal of utilitarianism is to provide the greatest good for 
      the greatest number.  This view tends to dominate business decision making.
2.       Focus on rights—calls on individuals to make decisions consistent with
       fundamental liberties and privileges as set forth in documents such as the Bill
       of Rights.
·         An emphasis on rights means respecting and protecting the basic rights of individuals, such as the right to privacy, to free speech, and to due process.
3.   Focus on justice—requires individuals to impose and enforce rules fairly and
      impartially.  There is an equitable distribution of benefits and costs.
4.   Advantages and liabilities of these three criteria:
·         Utilitarianism
a.   Promotes efficiency and productivity
b.   It can result in ignoring the rights of some individuals, particularly those with minority representation in the organization.
·         Rights
a.   Protects individuals from injury and is consistent with freedom and privacy
             b.   It can create an overly legalistic work environment that hinders 
                   productivity and efficiency.
·         Justice
a.   Protects the interests of the underrepresented and less powerful
b.   It can encourage a sense of entitlement that reduces risk taking, innovation, and productivity.
                                          i.    Decision makers tend to feel safe and comfortable when they use utilitarianism. Many critics of business decision makers argue that this perspective needs to change.
5.   Increased concern in society about individual rights and social justice suggests the need for managers to develop ethical standards based solely on non-utilitarian criteria.
B.    Ethics and National Culture
1.   There are no global ethical standards.
2.   Contrasts between Asia and the West illustrate:
·         Bribery is commonplace in countries such as China. Should a Western business professional pay a bribe to secure business if it is an accepted part of that country’s culture?
·         A manager of a large U.S. company operating in China caught an employee stealing. She fired him, turned him over to the local authorities, only to learn later that the employee had been summarily executed.
·         While ethical standards may seem ambiguous in the West, criteria defining right and wrong are actually much clearer in the West than in Asia. Few issues are black-and-white there; most are gray.
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