First, you need to know the difference between a project and a program. A project has a beginning and an end; a program has multiple steps, each with its beginning and end (Szymkuć et al., 2016). If you are developing software or hardware, you can use the same software or hardware differently at different times. If you are building a house and an office, both projects are part of one overall program. Next, when working on your first megaproject (or any project for that matter), it is important to think about modularity from the beginning so that you do not get stuck in the details and lose sight of what matters most: making sure your project is successful! Here are some tips for thinking about modularity when working on your first megaproject: Make sure all parts of your project fit together like puzzle pieces. When designing something like a chemical plant or nuclear reactor, it is easy to get lost in detail when there is no clear goal: Why did we build this thing? What will happen if something goes wrong? How will we know if it is working? The article begins by discussing the concept of modularity as it relates to software development. The author states that “modularity is a better way to design software than standardization.” (Lehrer and Behnam, 2009). The article also cites two examples from history: The Apollo program (which was modular) versus the Manhattan Project (which was standardized but not modular). The author then discusses how modularity applies to business projects such as hydroelectric dams or chemical-processing plants. He explains that these projects are large and complex—but not completely unprecedented—and require collaboration among many people over extended periods.

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