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Principles of Psychology questions

Q1: Sources of human behavior
The main causes and influences of human behavior in the field of psychology have been under study for many decades. Thus, nature and nurture has been used to illustrate these causes. Environmental aspects, as well as practices that affect directly or indirectly human behavior, are examined under nurture controversies while genetic and the heritage of personalities are studied under the nature of human beings. Nature and nurture comprise of ecological, biological, and evolution, contribute to the changes and trends in human behavior. For instance, the study of identical twins whose generic traits are similar has played a fundamental role in determining how genetic factors affect human behavior. Approximately about 50% of human behavior is contributed by the inheritance of genes from parents to the offspring.
Furthermore, evolutionary and environmental aspects, play a crucial role in shaping human behavior. The environmental factors may include parental supervision and guidance, peers, environmental conditions such as climate and weather, among other factors. Human beings are born with the ability to learn, understand, acquire knowledge and adapt to changes with the surroundings. Over the entire leaning learning process, there is interaction with other human beings and the environment as well which influences human behavior. Thus, it is very obvious that exposure, genetic inheritance, and environmental aspects affect human behavior.
Q2: The laws of perceptual organization According to Gestalt psychologists
There are specific trends in which human beings incorporate bits of sensory stimulation into expressive entities. The laws of the perceptual organization, according to Gestalt psychologists, are illustrated as follows.
Figure-ground perception: It is the ability of the visual system to break down an object under is under study or observation into the main object, and all that makes up the background. Usually, the main figure itself is the most fundamental point of view, and the rest becomes the background (Kahneman & Henik, 2017). Under this perceptual law, contrast, brightness, the size and clarity of an object play a crucial role in realizing the vision.
Proximity: According to this law, nearby objects are perceived to belong to a similar group instead of being in distinct groups.
Continuity/closure: According to Continuity law, an object is perceived as a whole when it is lined to a straight line or a complete circular path. According to the perceptual closure law, the visual system forms a sensual perception from unfinished objects.
Top-down and bottom-up processing: This law form techniques that are applied in understanding the process of perception. The form in which the brain group and understand patterns is the Top-down processing approach, whereas the use of inducement such as eyes to transfer information to the brain to create visual perception.
Q 3: Depth Illusion
Motion parallax makes a stationary object appear to be moving when we look outside while driving fast. The monocular cues make the object position to shift about motion as perceived by the retina of the eye while driving fast. Also, at an aerial point of view, an object that is far from the view is blurred as a result of the atmosphere (Ylikoski, 2017). Furthermore, monocular cue makes the large objects that are far away to be perceived as small.

Q4: Hering-Helmholtz and the Muller-Lyer optical illusions
The Hering-Helmholtz illusion is carried out in two straight parallel lines. The two straight and parallel lines seemed to be curved due affect the background images. According to Kahneman & Henik (2017), the nature of our perceptual system to convert acute angles is the main cause of distortion of the images. On the contrary, Müller-Lyer illusion cause two equal lines are used to examine visual perception. The arrows in the two lines point the opposite direction, whereby one arrow point inwards while the other one point outwards. The two-line appear unequal. The line the arrow that points inwards appear longer. The angle and size perception and interpretation of the brain create such an illusion leading to deceptive information.
Q5: Imaging Techniques
In the course of invasive brain research, one of the most effective methods used is Positron emission tomography. The technique entails the use of active metabolic chemicals that emit radiation. The measurement and processing of the emitted radians are carried out through computerized systems that form images. The formed images form a representation of the accumulation and distribution of chemicals in the brain. The scan is used to determine the rate of glucose metabolism and the flow of blood in the brain. Electroencephalography is also another fundamental imaging technique is applied in the measurement and recording of neural activity.
Q6: Absolute threshold and just-noticeable differences
The least quantity of stimulus that can be perceived by a person can be termed as Absolute threshold, whereas just a noticeable difference is the minimum difference that can be noticed when comparing two objects (Kahneman & Henik, 2017, p. 120). When related to vision, this can be distinguished in terms of tiniest photons that an individual’s eye can detect.
Allen, J., & Howell, K. (2014). Microvascular imaging: techniques and opportunities for clinical physiological measurements. Physiological measurement, 35(7), R91.
Carter, I. (2017). Human behavior in the social environment: A social systems approach. Routledge.
Kahneman, D., & Henik, A. (2017). Perceptual organization and attention. In Perceptual organization (pp. 181-211). Routledge.
Smith, E. A. (2017). Three styles in the evolutionary analysis of human behavior. In Adaptation and human behavior (pp. 27-46). Routledge.
Ylikoski, P. (2017). The illusion of depth of understanding in science.


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