MUS 89- Lesson 6


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  1. Caribbean Music

Describe the elemental rhythmic characteristic of Caribbean music (“clave”). To what source can it be traced?

The clave is a rhythm that forms salsa music. It is significant to the square rhythms that overwhelm a lot of European music due to its African roots. The clave is comprised of areas of strength with three notes (otherwise called the “tresillo”) and a powerless measure with two notes (otherwise called the “two-three”) (Zahner, 2019). These design outcomes start with one or the other measure, which are alluded to as “three-two” or “two-three.”

As per a few commentators, this melodic style is made when huge band jazz joins African-American rhythms. Nonetheless, the clave design has its starting points in Sub-Saharan African music customs, where it fills a similar need as it does in Cuba (Zahner, 2019). The clave rhythm started in Africa, yet it was refined and advocated in Cuban music.

  • “Clave” refers to an instrument as well as a rhythm. How would you describe the instrument and its technique of playing?

A clave is a grouping of musical accents rehashed and stressed over a tune’s groove. That is what this infers; while the band grooves like it would on some other melody, a few rhythms are reliably stressed over others. The clave is comprised of painful areas of strength with three notes (otherwise called the “tresillo”) and a feeble measure with two notes (otherwise called the “two-three”) (, The clave). This outcome in designs starts with one or the other measure, alluded to as “three-two” or “two-three.” Claves are played by beating two bits of wood together to create a puncturing breaking sound (, The clave). Due to their void, present-day claves are amplified. At the point when one clave collides with the other, the stick makes a reverberation. The best way to play the claves is to strike them together.

  • How would you explain the connection of “clave rhythm” to rhythmic patterns of Africa?

Clave is both historical and cultural. The blend of African drums and the Spanish guitar makes clave. Salsa is the grandchild of the seeds that were planted in the Caribbean. The clave is a two-bar cadenced example that developed from an African ringer design brought to the Americas on slave ships (, The clave). The instrument, some of the time known as the clave, was produced using Cuban mahogany that was once utilized for shipbuilding stakes. Enslaved people from Africa were not permitted to carry their instruments, so they made new ones out of what they could find (, The clave). This announcement effectively shows the clave idea’s expansive degree and a portion of its illustrative applications. All the more critically, it underlines the cadence’s African roots.

  • Describe “danza” and “mambo”. How are they connected?

The Danza is most likely Puerto Rican culture’s definitive imaginative indication. The New World melodic classification most intently looks like European traditional music. It is a profound-character genre with many melodic and consonant substances (Bailyn, Music genre: Danza – music of Puerto Rico). Then again, Mambo is a Cuban genre from the danzón custom. The style is known as danzón-mambo in different Latin American nations. Mambo mixes components of well-known Latin dance music with the melodic refinement of the child Cubano class, which fills in as the establishment for the more extensive melodic style of salsa (MasterClass, 2021). Mambo is the segment of a plan in Danza and fellow styles that remember the instrumental acts of spontaneity for Afro-Caribbean music.

  • What are the piano and the bass roles in Caribbean music?

In reggae music, the bass is as often as possible alluded to as the lead vocalist. It assumes an essential part in making any reggae melody’s mood, bassline, and tune (6 Reggae Musical Instruments you should know 2022). The piano likewise assumes a significant part in reggae music. The piano is utilized to twofold the beat of the guitar and add intricacy to the tune. The instrument is a magnificent supplement to the guitar and bass (6 Reggae Musical Instruments you should know 2022). Pianos must be seldom used without anyone else in reggae music. These instruments, along with the vocals of the artists who play them, have assisted in making the absolute best reggae music ever, and they keep doing so today in 4/4 time.

  • What are the main percussion instruments of Caribbean music?

A reggae drum set is a dense form of all African percussion and drum parts. Drums and percussion are significant parts of reggae music since they assist with keeping the 4/4 beat. Most reggae melodies utilize a standard drum set to meet this speed, yet the music likewise incorporates timbale and high-tuned catches. One Drop, Rockers, and Steppers are the three principal drumming classes in reggae (6 Reggae Musical Instruments you should know 2022). One drop beats emphasize the steady rhythm with the catch or an edge shot. The bass drum is used as often as possible in a rocker’s beat, highlighting each of the four thumps (6 Reggae Musical Instruments you should know 2022). The bass drum is utilized on each fourth beat, while the stepper’s beat drives the music.

  • Describe the role of the bell in Caribbean music.

In Caribbean music, the bell is consolidated. The bell is an extraordinary performance instrument and a device for playing basic patterns. The bell is comprised of a few ringers of different sizes that produce hints of different pitches (, Brazilian percussion instruments). An upper and bring-down volume is delivered by striking a wooden stick against the ringers.

  1. Latin Music

What are a few of Emilio Estefan’s contributions to Latin music?

Emilio has not just exhibited the significance of the Latin people group in developing popular music. Yet, he has likewise made light of a vital job in breaking hindrances to its worldwide openness and acknowledgement. Emilio has consistently tested and pushed the edge concerning combining Latin, pop, and worldwide rhythms, bringing about an unmistakable style and character (FCab, Emilio Estefan Bio). This vision stretches out past music to incorporate, in addition to other things, motion pictures, TV, lodgings, and eateries. His essential objective has forever been to disperse the biases that have tormented the Latino people group in film and TV for a long time (FCab, Emilio Estefan Bio). Emilio made and shot “90 Millas,” his most memorable full-length narrative film about Cuban music pioneers and history, in 2008.

  • Give at least three (3) parallels between the stories of these two musicians.

Exactly when Estefan detailed the foundation of his Sony Music-dubbed release ‘Crescent Moon’ in Miami in January 1994, he said he intended to accomplish Latin music like Gordy helped black music with Motown. The Miami press and music examiners jumped on the similitude immediately (Los Angeles Times, 1996). (Los Angeles Times, 1996).

Gloria Estefan’s profession and music were moulded by Estefan, regardless of how a couple of individuals beyond Miami or the music business knew what his identity was (Los Angeles Times, 1996).

Gloria’s prevalence extended in the last part of the 1980s and mid-1990s, yet her music’s Latin viewpoints blurred for a smooth, standard pop sound. The Estefans embraced the chance to go back to their Cuban culture with the collection “Mi Tierra” in 1993, having constructed a track of strength for a record, My Land (Los Angeles Times, 1996).

  1. Reggae

What famous and most representative reggae musician was part of this group?

Bob Marley was the famous musician of The Wailers band, starting in 1963.

  • What are his musical significance and accomplishments?

No rundown of reggae specialists would be finished without Bob Marley in the top space. Bob Marley rose to fame with his sponsorship band, The Wailers, beginning in 1963 (, Who are the best reggae artists of all-time?: Musicguard). Bob Marley’s tunes sounded peaceful yet were frequently political, with well-known subjects of affection, recovery, and battle. Bob Marley recorded a few ageless singles, including ‘I Shot the Sheriff’ and ‘No Woman No Cry (, Who are the best reggae artists of all time?: Musicguard). Maybe the most notorious Bob Marley collection is ‘Departure,’ delivered amid the beginning of punk in 1977; the collection contains a portion of his best singles, including ‘One Love’ and ‘Three Little Birds’ (, Who are the best reggae artists of all-time?: Musicguard). Bob Marley and the Wailers additionally held one of the most famous reggae shows in history in the One Love Peace Concert, which occurred in Kingston, Jamaica, in 1978, determined to end the battle between Kingston’s contending groups (, Who are the best reggae artists of all-time?: Musicguard). The exhibition highlighted probably the greatest stars in reggae at the level of the class’ prosperity, including Culture and Dennis Brown.

  1. Mexican-American Music

Define the term Norteño and the characteristics of Norteño music.

Norteño music emerged from a mixing of Mexican and Spanish oral and melodic practices, military metal band hardware, and Germanic melodic structures like polka and three-step dance.

Discernable parts of norteño incorporate the utilization of the button accordion and bajo sexto. The beat is generally steady and maybe middle or quick speed. Norteño is a type of Mexican bluegrass music and, in this way, has a more country tone (, Norteño (music)  ). Other than the standard instrumentation, norteño music and numerous different sorts of traditional Mexican music is renowned for the Grito Mexicano. This shout is finished at melodic intervals inside a tune, either by the entertainers or the listening crowd.

  • Define the term Tex-Mex and its musical characteristics.

Tex-Mex music is a piece of famous music in Central and South Texas and northeastern Mexico that blends elaborate qualities from the two societies. Tex-Mex music gets from norteño, a type of music from Northern Mexico (“norteño” is the Spanish word for “north”), and the metal music of German and Czech settlers who relocated to Texas throughout the 1800s (, Tejano music history: 4 characteristics of Tejano Music – 2022).

Several qualities exemplify Tejano music, including:

Impact: Regional Mexican music and customary Eastern European dance music, including polka, are the essential effects on Tex-Mex music. The class also depends on famous music customs from the U.S., including country, rock ‘n’ roll, rhythm, soul, blues, and popular music (, Tejano music history: 4 characteristics of Tejano Music – 2022).

Band makeup: There are three kinds of Tex-Mex groups: conjunto Tejano, contemporary, and orquestas. Conjunto Tejano highlights a similar list as Mexican conjunto and norteño groups. However, orquestas embraced an ordinary stone/soul/jazz game plan of guitar, bass, and drums with synthesizers and horns (, Tejano music history: 4 characteristics of Tejano Music – 2022). The synthesizer is at the heart of today’s Tex-Mex sound, which is backed up by a rock-style band. Be that as it may, numerous contemporary groups have returned to the foundations of Tex-Mex by expanding the accordion’s significance over the synthesizer.

Instruments: Tex_Mex music shares its introductory melodic course of action with conjunto and norteño, particularly in its generally conventional or conjunto Tejano structure (, Tejano music history: 4 characteristics of Tejano Music – 2022). A setup of accordion, bass, bajo sexto, and drums gives the centre of this setup.

Songs: A Tex-Mex band’s playlist can contain suitable Mexican melody styles like corridos, rancheras (beautiful people tunes), dances, polkas, congruity driven mariachi music, and dance music like cumbia, and folk moves (, Tejano music history: 4 characteristics of Tejano Music – 2022). In any case, Tex-Mex music likewise embraces American songwriting structures, including blues, rock, soul, and country.

  • What is Conjunto?

Conjunto music is conventional Tejano music from the Rio Grande borderlands. It is one more key effect on the style. Both conjunto groups in Texas and grupos norteños (norteño gatherings) in Mexico perform utilizing a mix of conventional Mexican and Eastern European instruments, including the button accordion, bass, bajo sexto (a 12-string guitar), and drums (, Tejano music history: 4 characteristics of Tejano Music – 2022).

  • How does Conjunto differ from Norteño / Tex-Mex music?

Tex-Mex is a well-known music genre that joins components from Mexico, Europe, and the United States. The music is normally played in little gatherings, with accordion and guitar, and incorporates components from Mexican-Spanish vocal practices as well as Czech and German dance tunes and rhythms, particularly polka or three-step dance (, Tejano music history: 4 characteristics of Tejano Music – 2022). Its progression began in northern Mexico (an assortment known as norteño).

Mexican conjunto music was brought into the world in South Texas toward the finish of the 1800s after German pioneers presented the button accordion. The bajo sexto has come to go with the button accordion and is vital to the conjunto sound. Numerous conjuntos are focused in the Southwestern region of the United States, basically in Texas and California (, Tejano music history: 4 characteristics of Tejano Music – 2022). In Mexico, the term conjunto is connected with norteño and Tejano music. Since Tejano was initially reproduced out of norteño music, this affiliation isn’t entirely false (, Tejano music history: 4 characteristics of Tejano Music – 2022). In any case, because of various social and conservative conditions during the 1900s, norteño entertainers started fostering the Tejano class as a digression to conjunto.

  • Describe the musical characteristics of Banda music and list its most distinctive instrumentation.

Banda music has particular traits that partner it with a certain area of Mexico. It is at present one of the most well-known types of territorial music worldwide. Its most distinctive element is consolidating wind instruments, including clarinets, trombones, trumpets, Eb horns, and sousaphones (otherwise called tubas) with a Tambora drum and cymbals ([email protected], 2022). It has a polka ball feel yet with a quicker rhythm. Typically, a couple hit the dance floor with a ton of nearness. It is affected by German and French people’s music, attributable to the flood of German and French foreigners and Sinaloa’s business movement during the 1800s.

  • How is Banda music changing from its traditional roots?

Banda is a type that is exclusively connected with Mexico. Traditional dance rhythms (e.g., polka, son, cumbia, and three-step dance) have been creatively changed by using electronic recording gear and a hyperactive presentation style in this music. Also, it is undeniably being made in the United States of America. It is progressively being created in suburbia of Phoenix and Los Angeles and sung by Mexican-Americans who grew up communicating in English and paying attention to rock and rap ([email protected], 2022). It was once compared to country music, with verses about country life sung by men from Mexico’s western barren wilderness.

  1. Selena Quintanilla-Perez

Based on the textbook reading and your research, provide a brief biography of this significant Mexican-American musical artist.

Selena Quintanilla Pérez was born on April 26, 1971. Quintanilla, the “Queen of Tejano Music,” was born in Lake Jackson, Texas. Quintanilla was the lead artist in their family’s band and grew up with two more established siblings. “Selena y Los Dinos” was their most memorable band name, and it started with Selena and her siblings performing together in their family’s café at the end of the week (Mikey, 2022). Tragically, the family’s eatery business fizzled, and the family moved to Corpus Christi, Texas, where the father grew up. The family chose to venture to every part of the state and act in various urban areas to exhibit their children’s abilities because the privately-run company had fizzled (Mikey, 2022). Quintanilla quit going to class in the eighth grade because of this cycle. However, she later got back to school on the internet and procured her GED (identical to a secondary school certificate). In the years that followed, the band visited across Texas, and Selena’s fame developed (Mikey, 2022). Selena was so famous that she was named female artist of the year at the Tejano Music Awards in 1988. She would proceed to get this honour for the following seven years also.

  • Describe Selena’s musical importance in the 1990s and her contribution to popular music in general.

Selena Gomez’s quick ascent to popularity was much like that of a falling star: she was splendid and persuasive, yet her life was cut short. Selena’s memory and music keep on moving the age of Latino fans, regardless of her less-than-ideal passing. Selena’s tune amplified the group for Texan-Mexican music and added to the height of Latin music power across the United States, bringing her the appellation “Queen of Tejano” (, Selena). Selena’s collection ‘Selena Live’ was chosen for a Grammy in 1994, making her the preeminent Tejano artist to achieve in that capacity. Selena was killed on March 31, 1995, by a lady leader of her group of followers and the previous business supervisor of her store (, Selena). ‘Longing for You,’ her last collection, was delivered a month after her demise. She became the prominent music artist to have five Spanish collections on the Billboard 200 rundown simultaneously (, Selena). She has been recollected both freely and secretly by Latina stars who have devoted fronts of her melodies to her memory and by families who have named their children after her.








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